20

What is the purpose of adding azo and triphenyl compounds in foods?

Apakah tujuan mencampurkan sebatian azo dan trifenil dalam makanan?
A To stabilise the oil in water

Untuk menstabilkan minyak di dalam air
B To enhance the taste and flavour of foods

Untuk meningkatkan rasa dan perisa makanan
C To prevent the foods from being oxidised

Untuk mengelakkan makanan daripada teroksida
D To improve the appearance of foods by restoring their colours

Untuk memperbaiki rupa makanan dengan memulihkan warna makanan berkenaan

19 Which of the following chemical equations represents the reaction of preparation of soap? Diantara persamaan kimia berikut, yang manakah mewakili tindak balas penyediaan sabun? A Ethanoic acid + ethanol  ethyl ethanoate + water Asid etanoik + etanol  etil etanoat + air B Oil + sodium hydroxide  glycerol + sodium palmitate Minyak + natrium hidroksida  gliserol + natrium palmitat C Glucose + yeast  ethanol + carbon dioxide Glukosa + yis  etanol + karbon dioksida D Alkylbenzene sulphonic acid + sodium hydroxide  sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate + water Asid alkilbenzena sulfonik + natrium hidroksida  natrium alkilbenzena sulfonat + air 20 Why detergents more effective than soaps? Kenapakah detergen lebih berkesan berbanding dengan sabun? A Detergents are biodegradable whereas soaps are non biodegradble. Detergen boleh terbiodegradasi manakala sabun tidak terbiodegradasi. Detergents reduce the surface tension of water, whereas soaps do not. Detergen merendahkan ketegangan permukaan air manakala sabun tidak merendahkan ketegangan permukaan air. C Detergents do not form scum in hard water, whereas soaps do. Detergen tidak membentuk kekat didalam air liat manakala sabun membentuk kekat. D Detergents are soluble in grease, whereas soaps are insoluble in grease. Detergen larut dalam gris manakala sabun tidak larut dalam gris.
19 Which of the following medicines is not an analgesic? A Aspirin B Codeine C Paracetamol

B

yang manakah merupakan pengantioksida? A Asid benzoik . What type of medicine is streptomycin? Apakah jenis ubat streptomisin? A B C D Analgesic Analgesik Antibiotic Antibiotik Antipsychotic Antipsikotik Psychotherapeutic Psikoteraputik 20 Antara bahan tambah makanan berikut. She goes to the clinic and the doctor prescribes streptomycin. Afiqah merasa tidak sihat. Dia pergi ke klinik dan doktor memberinya streptomisin.D Streptomycin 20 A B C D Which of the following food additives is an antioxidant ? Benzoic acid Ascorbic acid Sodium nitrate Ethyl ethanoate 49 Which substance is normally used as a substitute for aspartame in food and drinks? Bahan manakah yang biasa diguna sebagai pengganti bagi aspartam dalam makanan dan minuman? A B C D Salt Garam Chilly Cili Sugar Gula Vinegar Cuka 50 Afiqah is not feeling well.

.................... yang manakah sesuai untuk merawat pesakit tersebut? A Codeine Kodena B Penicilin Penisilin C Barbiturate Barbiturat D Paracetamol Parasetamol 3...... Which of the following medicine is suitable to treat this patient? Seorang pesakit selalu berasa sedih dan murung.................... (a) Benzoic acid is an example of food additives that can be used when processing food..........................................B Asid askorbik C Natriumnitrat D Etil etanoat 50 A patient is always sad and depress. semasa Asid benzoik adalah satu contoh bahan tambah makanan yang boleh digunakan memproses makanan................ Antara ubat berikut.............................. (i) What is meant by food additives? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan bahan tambah makanan? ............................................... [1 mark] (ii) What is the function of benzoic acid? Apakah fungsi asid benzoik? ....... [1 mark] (iii) and fine? What type of food additives that makes the texture of ice cream smooth ................................................................................

. Type of medicine Jenis ubat Example Contoh Antibiotic Antibiotik Penicillin Penisilin Psychotherapeutic medicine Ubat psikoterapeutik Tranquilizer Trankuilizer Table 3 Jadual 3 ............................ [1 mark] (b) medicine digunakan Antibiotic..... [1 mark] (iv) The implication of taking excess food additives can cause side effects....... State one side effect to the consumer......... menyebabkan Implikasi pengambilan bahan tambah makanan yang berlebihan boleh kesan sampingan....... .............. ubat psikoterapeutik dan analgesik merupakan beberapa jenis ubat yang untuk mengubati pesakit................................ Table 3 shows the information about types of medicine.............................................................. psychotherapeutic medicine and analgesic are several types of used to cure patients.......... Jadual 3 menunjukkan maklumat tentang jenis-jenis ubat...................... Antibiotik... Nyatakan satu kesan sampingan kepada pengguna................................Apakah jenis bahan tambah makanan yang menjadikan tekstur ais krim halus dan sekata? .........................................

........... [2 marks] (ii) Doctor advised the patient to finish all the antibiotic given........... Function of tranquilizer: Fungsi trankuilizer: .................................................................................................................................................................... pesakit tersebut berasa sihat dan berhenti mengambil antibiotik itu............................. Rajah 3 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi aspirin........... [1 mark] (iii) Diagram 3 shows the structural formula of aspirin........................... .................................................................................(i) What are the functions of penicillin and tranquilizer? Apakah fungsi penisilin dan trankuilizer? Function of penicillin: Fungsi penisilin: ..... the patient feels healthy and stops taking the antibiotic................................................................................ After two days of taking antibiotic........ Apakah kesan tindakan ini terhadap pesakit? ........... Selepas dua hari mengambil antibiotik. What is the effect of this action to the patient? Doktor menasihatkan pesakit untuk menghabiskan semua antibiotik yang diberikan.............. ................................................................................

.................... Empirical formula: Formula empirik: ..Diagram 3 Rajah 3 Write the molecular formula and empirical formula of aspirin? Tuliskan formula molekul dan formula empirik bagi aspirin? Molecular formula: Formula molekul: ...... H= 1... [Jisim atom relatif: C= 12................................ H= 1.. [2 marks] (iv) Calculate the relative molecular mass of aspirin.............................. [Relative Atomic Mass: C= 12. O= 16] [1 mark] .......... O= 16] Hitung jisim molekul relatif bagi aspirin..........................................

.........Why? Natrium klorida ditambah kepada campuran......………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) Sodium chloride is added into the mixture........... Nyatakan bahagian zarah sabun yang larut dalam gris..............1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada tindakan pencucian oleh zarah-zarah sabun ke atas kotoran bergris pada kain.................. Rajah 3...1 shows part of the washing action of soap particles on a cloth stained with grease... Glass rod is used to stir the mixture........ 3 3 spatula pepejal natrium klorida dan 50 cm air suling ditambahkan..... The mixture of 5........... .3.. .………… [1 mark] b) Diagram 3......................Mengapa? ……………………………………………………………………………………..1 Rajah 3.[1 mark] . ... 3 3 -3 a) (i) Name the process involved.0 cm minyak sawit dan 50 cm larutan natrium hidroksida 5 mol dm dididihkan dalam bikar.0 cm3 palm oil and 50 cm3 of 5 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide solutions are boiled in a beaker. Water Air Grease Gris Cloth Kain Diagram 3.....1 (i) State the part of a soap particle that is soluble in water. Campuran 5.......... Namakan proses yang terlibat........ Rod kaca digunakan untuk mengacau campuran itu....... Campuran dipanaskan lagi selama 5 minit dan kemudian disejukkan.. The mixture is heated for another 5 minutes and then allowed to cool........ Then 3 spatula of solid sodium chloride and 50 cm3 of distilled water are added.

........1............ [2 marks] (ii) In which beaker is the soap more effective as cleaning agent? Explain why...................2 (i) What is the difference between soft water and hard water? Apakah perbezan antara air lembut dan air liat? ............................................ .. terangkan bagaimana anion sabun bertindak ke atas gris? .................................................................................................................................2 Berdasarkan Rajah 3.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... explain how does the anion of soap act on grease? Berdasarkan rajah 3. Dalam bikar manakah sabun bertindak lebih berkesan sebagai agen pembersih?Terangkan mengapa.....................………………………………………………… [1 mark] (iii) Based on diagram 3........................................................................................................2 Rajah 3.....2 Beaker Q Bikar Q c) Based on Diagram 3.....(ii) What is the effect of soap on the surface tension of water? Apakah kesan sabun ke atas ketegangan permukaan air? ............... [2 marks] ................................................................................1...................... ................... [2 marks] Cloth Kain Soap + soft water Sabun + air lembut Cloth Kain Soap + hard water Sabun + air liat Grease Gris Grease Gris Beaker P Bikar P Diagram 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .. .. .

answer the following questions : Berdasarkan Jadual 3. Rajah 3.3 Diagram 3. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Nyatakan satu fungsi pokok lidah buaya sebagai ubat tradisional.1 Aloe vera plant can be used as a traditional medicine. [1 mark] (b) Table 3 shows the two types of medicine and their example.1 Rajah 3. Type of medicine Example Jenis ubat X Y Table 3 Contoh Aspirin Aspirin Streptomycin Sreptomisin Jadual 3 Based on the Table 3.1 shows the aloe vera plant. Diagram 3.1 menunjukkan pokok lidah buaya. [1 mark] (ii) Name one traditional medicine that can cure wind in the body. jawab soalan-soalan berikut : . ………………………………………………………………………………………. Jadual 3 menunjukkan dua jenis ubat moden dan contohnya. (a) (i) State one function of aloe vera as a traditional medicine. Namakan satu ubat tradisional yang dapat merawat angin dalam badan. Pokok lidah buaya boleh digunakan sebagai ubat tradisional.

[1 mark] (c) Diagram 3.2 shows the set-up of apparatus set-up to prepare soap. State a suitable medicine that can be prescribed by the doctor. ……………………………………………………………………………………….2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menyediakan sabun.(i) State X and Y: Nyatakan X dan Y: X : ………………………………………………………………………………… Y : ………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (ii) Why must a patient complete all the streptomycin as prescribed by the doctor? Mengapa pesakit perlu mengambil hingga habis ubat streptomisin seperti yang disarankan oleh doctor ? ………………………………………………………………………………………. . [2 marks] (iii) A doctor found that a patient is suffered with tuberculosis and pneumonia. Apakah jenis ubat yang sesuai disarankan oleh doktor tersebut. Rajah 3. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Seorang doktor mendapati pesakitnya mengalami penyakit tibi dan pneumonia .

………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Rajah 3.3 State the part of the soap ion that is soluble in water. [1 mark] (iii) The oily stains on cloth cannot be removed when wash in hard water by using soap. CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C–O O Part X Part Y  Bahagian X Bahagian Y Diagram 3.2 (i) Name the process for the preparation of soap. Kotoran berminyak pada pakaian tidak dapat ditanggalkan apabila . Explain why. Nyatakan bahagian ion sabun yang larut dalam air.Distilled water Air suling Palm oil Minyak sawit + Concentrated Sodium hydroxide solution + Sodium chloride Natrium klorida Larutan natrium hidroksida pekat Heat Panaskan Diagram 3.3 Rajah 3. [1 mark] (ii) CH3 Diagram 3.3 shows the structure of a soap ion.2 Rajah 3.3 menunjukkan struktur satu ion sabun. Namakan proses bagi penyediaan sabun.

………………………………………………………………………………………. [2 marks] . ………………………………………………………………………………………. Terangkan mengapa.dibersihkan dalam air liat dengan menggunakan sabun. ……………………………………………………………………………………….

Hitungkan diameter purata untuk kedua-dua blok.2. 1 kg weight Steel ball Metal block Diagram 8.8 Diagram 8.1 shows the apparatus set up of an experiment to compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy.00 Average/cm Table 8. Rajah 8 . Type of block Diameter of dent on metal block/cm Diameter of dent on alloy block/cm Diameter of dent/cm 1 2 3.1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekerasan logam tulen dengan aloinya.20 2. [ 2 marks] (b) The results obtained from the experiment are recorded in table 8. Namakan blok logam dan aloi yang sesuai digunakan dalam eksperimen tersebut. Explain the differences.2 Calculate the average diameter for both the blocks.1 (a) Name a suitable metal block and an alloy of the metal to be used in the experiment. [8 marks] . Terangkan perbezaannya.90 3.00 1.

aspartame. Patient Y suffers from long depression caused by an unfortunate accident. aspartame. classify the types of food additives used in this soft drink. State the food additives that are suitable to be used for the above purposes and explain how the additives act. Ia menolong menjadikan makanan tahan lama. Nyatakan bahan tambah makanan yang sesuai digunakan untuk tujuan di atas dan terangkan bagaimana bahan ini bertindak. Ingredients: Ramuan: Water. Pesakit Y mengalami tekanan perasaan yang berpanjangan akibat satu kemalangan. citric acid. preskripsi yang perlu dipatuhi dan mengapa preskripsi tersebut perlu dipatuhi oleh mereka. Cadangkan ubat yang patut diberikan kepada setiap pesakit. oktil butanoat dan tartazin Based on the ingredients used. the prescription that must be followed and a reason why the prescription must be followed by them. [6 marks] 9 (a) Food additives are chemicals that are used in processed food. asid sitrik. Berdasarkan ramuan yang digunakan. Maklumat berikut ditulis di belakang sebuah kotak minuman ringan. They help to make food last longer. [4 marks] (d) Patient X suffers from tuberculosis which is caused by a certain bacteria. Bahan tambah makanan merupakan bahan kimia yang digunakan dalam makanan yang diproses. octyl butanoate and tartazine Air.(c) These information are written on the back of a soft drink pack. Suggest a type of medicine that should be taken by each patient. [6 marks] [6 markah] [9 marks] [9 markah] . kelaskan jenis bahan tambah yang terkandung dalam minuman ringan ini. Pesakit X mengalami batuk kering yang disebabkan oleh sejenis bakteria. kelihatan menarik dan lebih sedap. look better and taste more delicious.

6 (a) Diagram 6. Nyatakan Proses Q. Namakan detergen B. …………………………………………………………………………………. Rajah 6.Na+ O Detergent B Detergen B Diagram 6. bulatkan dan labelkan bahagian hidrofilik dan hidrofobik. Process P Proses P CH3(CH2)nCH2OH O CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O – S .1 menunjukkan carta aliran untuk penyediaan detergen B...O-H O Alkyl sulphonic acid Asid alkil sulfonik Sodium hydroxide solution Larutan natrium hidroksida Process Q Proses Q O CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O –S . [1 mark] [1 markah] Based on the structure of detergent B.O. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) State the Process Q.1 (i) Name detergent B. circle and label the hydrophilic part and hydrophobic part. Berdasarkan struktur detergen B.1 Rajah 6.1 shows the flow chart for the preparation of detergent B. …………………………………………………………………………………. (b) O .

.Selangor.CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O –S – O-H O [2 marks] [2 markah] (c)(i) The cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than soap in hard water. Mentol. …………………………………………………………………………………...2 (i) Name one food additive used in the ice cream. Serdang. Rajah 6.2 menunjukkan satu label pembungkus makanan. Brilliant Biru Product by: Produk oleh: Wonder Company. (ii) MINT CANDY ICE CREAM AIS KRIM MINT CANDY Ingredients: Bahan-bahan: Glucose syrup.. [2 marks] [2 markah] (d) Diagram 6. Terangkan mengapa detergen adalah lebih berkesan daripada sabun dalam air liat.Date: 03112012 Tarikh Luput: 03112012 Diagram 6. Net Weight: 500g Berat Bersih: 500g Exp. (i) What is hard water? Apakah air liat? 6(c)(i) …………………………………………………………………………………. Namakan satu bahan tambah makanan dalam ais krim ini. Menthol. …………………………………………………………………………………. Tindakan pencucian detergen adalah lebih berkesan daripada sabun dalam air liat. [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain why detergent is more effective than soap in hard water.2 shows a label of food packages. Brilliant Blue Sirup glukos.2 Rajah 6.

Etil butanoat adalah satu contoh ester. [1 mark] [1 markah] (iii) Ethyl butanoate is an example of ester. Draw the structural formula of ethyl butanoate. …………………………………………………………………………………. Nyatakan fungsi bahan tambah makanan dalam (d)(i)... [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) State the function of the food additive in (d)(i).…………………………………………………………………………………. Lukiskan formula struktur bagi etil butanoat. [1 mark] [1 markah] .

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