20

What is the purpose of adding azo and triphenyl compounds in foods?

Apakah tujuan mencampurkan sebatian azo dan trifenil dalam makanan?
A To stabilise the oil in water

Untuk menstabilkan minyak di dalam air
B To enhance the taste and flavour of foods

Untuk meningkatkan rasa dan perisa makanan
C To prevent the foods from being oxidised

Untuk mengelakkan makanan daripada teroksida
D To improve the appearance of foods by restoring their colours

Untuk memperbaiki rupa makanan dengan memulihkan warna makanan berkenaan

19 Which of the following chemical equations represents the reaction of preparation of soap? Diantara persamaan kimia berikut, yang manakah mewakili tindak balas penyediaan sabun? A Ethanoic acid + ethanol  ethyl ethanoate + water Asid etanoik + etanol  etil etanoat + air B Oil + sodium hydroxide  glycerol + sodium palmitate Minyak + natrium hidroksida  gliserol + natrium palmitat C Glucose + yeast  ethanol + carbon dioxide Glukosa + yis  etanol + karbon dioksida D Alkylbenzene sulphonic acid + sodium hydroxide  sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate + water Asid alkilbenzena sulfonik + natrium hidroksida  natrium alkilbenzena sulfonat + air 20 Why detergents more effective than soaps? Kenapakah detergen lebih berkesan berbanding dengan sabun? A Detergents are biodegradable whereas soaps are non biodegradble. Detergen boleh terbiodegradasi manakala sabun tidak terbiodegradasi. Detergents reduce the surface tension of water, whereas soaps do not. Detergen merendahkan ketegangan permukaan air manakala sabun tidak merendahkan ketegangan permukaan air. C Detergents do not form scum in hard water, whereas soaps do. Detergen tidak membentuk kekat didalam air liat manakala sabun membentuk kekat. D Detergents are soluble in grease, whereas soaps are insoluble in grease. Detergen larut dalam gris manakala sabun tidak larut dalam gris.
19 Which of the following medicines is not an analgesic? A Aspirin B Codeine C Paracetamol

B

What type of medicine is streptomycin? Apakah jenis ubat streptomisin? A B C D Analgesic Analgesik Antibiotic Antibiotik Antipsychotic Antipsikotik Psychotherapeutic Psikoteraputik 20 Antara bahan tambah makanan berikut. Afiqah merasa tidak sihat. She goes to the clinic and the doctor prescribes streptomycin. Dia pergi ke klinik dan doktor memberinya streptomisin. yang manakah merupakan pengantioksida? A Asid benzoik .D Streptomycin 20 A B C D Which of the following food additives is an antioxidant ? Benzoic acid Ascorbic acid Sodium nitrate Ethyl ethanoate 49 Which substance is normally used as a substitute for aspartame in food and drinks? Bahan manakah yang biasa diguna sebagai pengganti bagi aspartam dalam makanan dan minuman? A B C D Salt Garam Chilly Cili Sugar Gula Vinegar Cuka 50 Afiqah is not feeling well.

............... Antara ubat berikut.................................... [1 mark] (iii) and fine? What type of food additives that makes the texture of ice cream smooth ...................................... (a) Benzoic acid is an example of food additives that can be used when processing food......................................................................................... yang manakah sesuai untuk merawat pesakit tersebut? A Codeine Kodena B Penicilin Penisilin C Barbiturate Barbiturat D Paracetamol Parasetamol 3.. [1 mark] (ii) What is the function of benzoic acid? Apakah fungsi asid benzoik? ...... semasa Asid benzoik adalah satu contoh bahan tambah makanan yang boleh digunakan memproses makanan................................B Asid askorbik C Natriumnitrat D Etil etanoat 50 A patient is always sad and depress....... Which of the following medicine is suitable to treat this patient? Seorang pesakit selalu berasa sedih dan murung............................... (i) What is meant by food additives? Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan bahan tambah makanan? .............

............................... Antibiotik........................................... ubat psikoterapeutik dan analgesik merupakan beberapa jenis ubat yang untuk mengubati pesakit........................................ psychotherapeutic medicine and analgesic are several types of used to cure patients..... .. Type of medicine Jenis ubat Example Contoh Antibiotic Antibiotik Penicillin Penisilin Psychotherapeutic medicine Ubat psikoterapeutik Tranquilizer Trankuilizer Table 3 Jadual 3 ......... menyebabkan Implikasi pengambilan bahan tambah makanan yang berlebihan boleh kesan sampingan....... Table 3 shows the information about types of medicine.............Apakah jenis bahan tambah makanan yang menjadikan tekstur ais krim halus dan sekata? ..... [1 mark] (b) medicine digunakan Antibiotic.................................................. Jadual 3 menunjukkan maklumat tentang jenis-jenis ubat.... Nyatakan satu kesan sampingan kepada pengguna..... [1 mark] (iv) The implication of taking excess food additives can cause side effects......... State one side effect to the consumer..................................................

.......... After two days of taking antibiotic...................... Function of tranquilizer: Fungsi trankuilizer: .................................................................................................... [2 marks] (ii) Doctor advised the patient to finish all the antibiotic given......... ....... Apakah kesan tindakan ini terhadap pesakit? ............................ [1 mark] (iii) Diagram 3 shows the structural formula of aspirin......................................................................... the patient feels healthy and stops taking the antibiotic.............................. ................................................ pesakit tersebut berasa sihat dan berhenti mengambil antibiotik itu................................................................................(i) What are the functions of penicillin and tranquilizer? Apakah fungsi penisilin dan trankuilizer? Function of penicillin: Fungsi penisilin: ....................................... Rajah 3 menunjukkan formula struktur bagi aspirin...... Selepas dua hari mengambil antibiotik............................................................................ What is the effect of this action to the patient? Doktor menasihatkan pesakit untuk menghabiskan semua antibiotik yang diberikan.....

..................................... H= 1............ O= 16] [1 mark] ...... [Relative Atomic Mass: C= 12.............................. Empirical formula: Formula empirik: ............ [2 marks] (iv) Calculate the relative molecular mass of aspirin....... H= 1....... O= 16] Hitung jisim molekul relatif bagi aspirin.............. [Jisim atom relatif: C= 12...................Diagram 3 Rajah 3 Write the molecular formula and empirical formula of aspirin? Tuliskan formula molekul dan formula empirik bagi aspirin? Molecular formula: Formula molekul: ....

...........0 cm minyak sawit dan 50 cm larutan natrium hidroksida 5 mol dm dididihkan dalam bikar..... ..1 (i) State the part of a soap particle that is soluble in water..... Rajah 3.........1 Rajah 3......3.... 3 3 spatula pepejal natrium klorida dan 50 cm air suling ditambahkan......... Glass rod is used to stir the mixture..... Namakan proses yang terlibat... 3 3 -3 a) (i) Name the process involved.[1 mark] .... .......Mengapa? …………………………………………………………………………………….... Rod kaca digunakan untuk mengacau campuran itu. Nyatakan bahagian zarah sabun yang larut dalam gris........0 cm3 palm oil and 50 cm3 of 5 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide solutions are boiled in a beaker...... Water Air Grease Gris Cloth Kain Diagram 3...........Why? Natrium klorida ditambah kepada campuran...........………… [1 mark] b) Diagram 3...... Campuran dipanaskan lagi selama 5 minit dan kemudian disejukkan...... The mixture is heated for another 5 minutes and then allowed to cool......1 shows part of the washing action of soap particles on a cloth stained with grease.. The mixture of 5......... Then 3 spatula of solid sodium chloride and 50 cm3 of distilled water are added.... .………………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) Sodium chloride is added into the mixture.... Campuran 5........1 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada tindakan pencucian oleh zarah-zarah sabun ke atas kotoran bergris pada kain........

.............2 (i) What is the difference between soft water and hard water? Apakah perbezan antara air lembut dan air liat? ....................1.......................................2 Rajah 3... Dalam bikar manakah sabun bertindak lebih berkesan sebagai agen pembersih?Terangkan mengapa........................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................... ................................................................ [2 marks] ................ explain how does the anion of soap act on grease? Berdasarkan rajah 3..................................................................................................2 Berdasarkan Rajah 3....... ................ .........(ii) What is the effect of soap on the surface tension of water? Apakah kesan sabun ke atas ketegangan permukaan air? ......................................................................2 Beaker Q Bikar Q c) Based on Diagram 3......................................... terangkan bagaimana anion sabun bertindak ke atas gris? .............1........................................................ ........................................................................ [2 marks] (ii) In which beaker is the soap more effective as cleaning agent? Explain why...............................................................................................................................................................………………………………………………… [1 mark] (iii) Based on diagram 3........................................... [2 marks] Cloth Kain Soap + soft water Sabun + air lembut Cloth Kain Soap + hard water Sabun + air liat Grease Gris Grease Gris Beaker P Bikar P Diagram 3............

Rajah 3. Pokok lidah buaya boleh digunakan sebagai ubat tradisional. Jadual 3 menunjukkan dua jenis ubat moden dan contohnya. ………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………. answer the following questions : Berdasarkan Jadual 3.1 Rajah 3.1 Aloe vera plant can be used as a traditional medicine.3 Diagram 3. Nyatakan satu fungsi pokok lidah buaya sebagai ubat tradisional.1 menunjukkan pokok lidah buaya. [1 mark] (ii) Name one traditional medicine that can cure wind in the body.1 shows the aloe vera plant. Namakan satu ubat tradisional yang dapat merawat angin dalam badan. jawab soalan-soalan berikut : . Diagram 3. [1 mark] (b) Table 3 shows the two types of medicine and their example. Type of medicine Example Jenis ubat X Y Table 3 Contoh Aspirin Aspirin Streptomycin Sreptomisin Jadual 3 Based on the Table 3. (a) (i) State one function of aloe vera as a traditional medicine.

2 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi menyediakan sabun. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Apakah jenis ubat yang sesuai disarankan oleh doktor tersebut.(i) State X and Y: Nyatakan X dan Y: X : ………………………………………………………………………………… Y : ………………………………………………………………………………… [2 marks] (ii) Why must a patient complete all the streptomycin as prescribed by the doctor? Mengapa pesakit perlu mengambil hingga habis ubat streptomisin seperti yang disarankan oleh doctor ? ………………………………………………………………………………………. [1 mark] (c) Diagram 3. Rajah 3. . [2 marks] (iii) A doctor found that a patient is suffered with tuberculosis and pneumonia. Seorang doktor mendapati pesakitnya mengalami penyakit tibi dan pneumonia .2 shows the set-up of apparatus set-up to prepare soap. State a suitable medicine that can be prescribed by the doctor. ……………………………………………………………………………………….

3 State the part of the soap ion that is soluble in water.3 menunjukkan struktur satu ion sabun.3 Rajah 3.Distilled water Air suling Palm oil Minyak sawit + Concentrated Sodium hydroxide solution + Sodium chloride Natrium klorida Larutan natrium hidroksida pekat Heat Panaskan Diagram 3.2 Rajah 3.2 (i) Name the process for the preparation of soap. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Rajah 3. CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C–O O Part X Part Y  Bahagian X Bahagian Y Diagram 3. Nyatakan bahagian ion sabun yang larut dalam air. [1 mark] (ii) CH3 Diagram 3.3 shows the structure of a soap ion. [1 mark] (iii) The oily stains on cloth cannot be removed when wash in hard water by using soap. ………………………………………………………………………………………. Namakan proses bagi penyediaan sabun. Kotoran berminyak pada pakaian tidak dapat ditanggalkan apabila . Explain why.

Terangkan mengapa. ………………………………………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………….dibersihkan dalam air liat dengan menggunakan sabun. [2 marks] . ……………………………………………………………………………………….

90 3.20 2.1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu eksperimen untuk membandingkan kekerasan logam tulen dengan aloinya. Explain the differences. Terangkan perbezaannya.8 Diagram 8.00 1. [8 marks] .2. Rajah 8 .1 shows the apparatus set up of an experiment to compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy. [ 2 marks] (b) The results obtained from the experiment are recorded in table 8. 1 kg weight Steel ball Metal block Diagram 8.2 Calculate the average diameter for both the blocks. Namakan blok logam dan aloi yang sesuai digunakan dalam eksperimen tersebut. Type of block Diameter of dent on metal block/cm Diameter of dent on alloy block/cm Diameter of dent/cm 1 2 3.1 (a) Name a suitable metal block and an alloy of the metal to be used in the experiment. Hitungkan diameter purata untuk kedua-dua blok.00 Average/cm Table 8.

citric acid. They help to make food last longer. Ingredients: Ramuan: Water. Bahan tambah makanan merupakan bahan kimia yang digunakan dalam makanan yang diproses. State the food additives that are suitable to be used for the above purposes and explain how the additives act. Nyatakan bahan tambah makanan yang sesuai digunakan untuk tujuan di atas dan terangkan bagaimana bahan ini bertindak. octyl butanoate and tartazine Air. kelaskan jenis bahan tambah yang terkandung dalam minuman ringan ini. aspartame. kelihatan menarik dan lebih sedap.(c) These information are written on the back of a soft drink pack. [4 marks] (d) Patient X suffers from tuberculosis which is caused by a certain bacteria. Cadangkan ubat yang patut diberikan kepada setiap pesakit. Berdasarkan ramuan yang digunakan. Maklumat berikut ditulis di belakang sebuah kotak minuman ringan. [6 marks] 9 (a) Food additives are chemicals that are used in processed food. asid sitrik. oktil butanoat dan tartazin Based on the ingredients used. Ia menolong menjadikan makanan tahan lama. the prescription that must be followed and a reason why the prescription must be followed by them. classify the types of food additives used in this soft drink. Pesakit X mengalami batuk kering yang disebabkan oleh sejenis bakteria. Patient Y suffers from long depression caused by an unfortunate accident. [6 marks] [6 markah] [9 marks] [9 markah] . Pesakit Y mengalami tekanan perasaan yang berpanjangan akibat satu kemalangan. aspartame. look better and taste more delicious. preskripsi yang perlu dipatuhi dan mengapa preskripsi tersebut perlu dipatuhi oleh mereka. Suggest a type of medicine that should be taken by each patient.

1 Rajah 6. Namakan detergen B.6 (a) Diagram 6. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) State the Process Q. Berdasarkan struktur detergen B.Na+ O Detergent B Detergen B Diagram 6.. ………………………………………………………………………………….O-H O Alkyl sulphonic acid Asid alkil sulfonik Sodium hydroxide solution Larutan natrium hidroksida Process Q Proses Q O CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O –S . Process P Proses P CH3(CH2)nCH2OH O CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O – S . …………………………………………………………………………………. circle and label the hydrophilic part and hydrophobic part.O. [1 mark] [1 markah] Based on the structure of detergent B.1 menunjukkan carta aliran untuk penyediaan detergen B. Rajah 6.1 shows the flow chart for the preparation of detergent B. Nyatakan Proses Q. bulatkan dan labelkan bahagian hidrofilik dan hidrofobik. (b) O ..1 (i) Name detergent B.

Mentol.2 Rajah 6. Net Weight: 500g Berat Bersih: 500g Exp.. [1 mark] [1 markah] Explain why detergent is more effective than soap in hard water. Namakan satu bahan tambah makanan dalam ais krim ini. [2 marks] [2 markah] (d) Diagram 6.2 shows a label of food packages. …………………………………………………………………………………... (i) What is hard water? Apakah air liat? 6(c)(i) …………………………………………………………………………………. (ii) MINT CANDY ICE CREAM AIS KRIM MINT CANDY Ingredients: Bahan-bahan: Glucose syrup. Serdang.2 (i) Name one food additive used in the ice cream.2 menunjukkan satu label pembungkus makanan. Terangkan mengapa detergen adalah lebih berkesan daripada sabun dalam air liat. Menthol. Brilliant Biru Product by: Produk oleh: Wonder Company. .Date: 03112012 Tarikh Luput: 03112012 Diagram 6.CH3(CH2)nCH2 – O –S – O-H O [2 marks] [2 markah] (c)(i) The cleansing action of a detergent is more effective than soap in hard water. Rajah 6.Selangor. Tindakan pencucian detergen adalah lebih berkesan daripada sabun dalam air liat. …………………………………………………………………………………. Brilliant Blue Sirup glukos.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) State the function of the food additive in (d)(i). [1 mark] [1 markah] .…………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] [1 markah] (iii) Ethyl butanoate is an example of ester. Nyatakan fungsi bahan tambah makanan dalam (d)(i). Lukiskan formula struktur bagi etil butanoat. Draw the structural formula of ethyl butanoate. Etil butanoat adalah satu contoh ester..

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