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Efisiensi Irigasi Dan Pengukuran Debit

Efisiensi Irigasi Dan Pengukuran Debit

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Pengoptimalan Sarana irigasi dan debit air
Pengoptimalan Sarana irigasi dan debit air

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Topik 4.

Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Pendahuluan
Tujuan instruksional khusus: mahasiswa memahami tentang: (a) konsep efisiensi
irigasi; (b) cara perhitungan dan beberapa data efisiensi irigasi , (b) pengukuran debit,
(c) usaha peningkatan efisiensi irigasi
Bahan Ajar
1. Efisiensi Irigasi
Secara kuantitatif efisiensi irigasi suatu jaringan irigasi sangat kurang diketahui dan
merupakan parameter yang sukar diukur. kan tetapi sangat penting dan umumnya
diasumsikan untuk menambah !"# sampai $""# terhadap keperluan air irigasi di
bendung. %ehilangan air irigasi pada tanaman padi berhubungan dengan : (a)
kehilangan air di saluran primer, sekunder dan tersier melalui rembesan, e&aporasi,
pengambilan air tanpa ijin dan lain'lain, (b) kehilangan akibat pengoperasian
termasuk pemberian air yang berlebihan.
Definisi efisiensi irigasi
(fisiensi penyaluran (conveyance efficiency), e (c) adalah efisiensi di saluran utama
yakni primer dan sekunder dari bendung sampai ke sadap tersier, dan dapat dihitung
dengan;
) (
) (
) (
hw V
d V
c e =
)$.$); dimana *(d) : &olume air di sadap tersier, *(hw): &olume air
di bendung. Tergantung pada panjang saluran primer dan sekunder, efisiensi
penyaluran dapat dipecah ke dalam: (a) efisiensi penyaluran di saluran primer e (cp)
dan (b) efisiensi penyaluran di saluran sekunder e (cs).
+ntuk mendapatkan gambaran efisiensi irigasi secara menyeluruh, diperlukan
gambaran menyeluruh dari suatu jaringan irigasi dan drainase mulai dari bendung;
saluran primer, sekunder, tersier, dan kwarter; petak tersier dan jaringan
irigasi)drainase dalam petak tersier; jaringan jalan seperti pada ,ambar $.-, $.., dan
$./.
(fisiensi distribusi e (d) adalah efisiensi distribusi di tersier sampai ke inlet di setiap
jalur petakan sawah, dan dapat dihitung dengan;
) (
) (
) (
d V
f V
d e =
)$.0); dimana *(f): &olume air yang sampai di petakan sawah
(fisiensi pemakaian air (application efficiency) di sawah e (f) adalah perbandingan
antara jumlah air yang sebenarnya diperlukan tanaman untuk e&apotranspirasi (*
crop) dengan jumlah air yang sampai ke suatu inlet jalur.
) (
) (
) (
f V
crop V
f e =
...)$.1)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Selanjutnya efisiensi di petak (unit) tersier e (u) digunakan sebagai gabungan efisiensi
distribusi dengan efisiensi pemakaian air. 2engan kata lain ini adalah efisiensi
penggunaan air sebelah hilir pintu sadap tersier dimana air dikelola oleh 31.
$
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( f e d e
d V
crop V
u e × = =
...)$.!)
,ambar $.-. Suatu tipikal tata'letak jaringan irigasi padi sawah
hirnya efisiensi suatu daerah irigasi (proyek), e (s) digunakan sebagai gabungan dari
seluruh sistim irigasi dan proses pemakaian air.
$
31: 3erkumpulan 3etani 3emakai ir, di 4awa 5arat disebut dengan 6itra 7ai
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( f e d e c e
hw V
crop V
s e × × = =
...)$.8)
,ambar $... Suatu tipikal tata'letak jaringan irigasi di petak tersier
3ada penelitian tingkat usahatani seringkali dianalisis besarnya (fisiensi 6anfaat
(water use efficiency) air yakni perbandingan antara kg hasil per m
1
air yang
dikonsumsi. 9asil dapat dinyatakan dalam kg ,%3, ,%, atau kg beras. 9asil
penelitian efisiensi manfaat air di :;;: pada musim kemarau tahun $</. pada
berbagai jenis perlakuan genangan air dapat dilihat pada Tabel $./. (fisiensi manfaat
air maksimum sebesar $,1< kg ,%3)m
1
air didapatkan pada perlakuan jenuh kontinyu
atau macak'macak, walaupun total produksinya (< ton ,%3)ha) masih lebih rendah
daripada perlakuan genangan -,8 cm kontinyu (<,- ton ,%3)ha).
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit

Tabel $./. 3enelitian di :;;: pada 6% tahun $</., padi &arietas :;.
3erlakuan
4uml air yang
dipakai <$ hari
:nde=
(fisiensi
manfaat
air
9asil ,%3
mm (#) (kg)m
1
) (ton)ha)
$ ,enangan kontinyu (-.8 cm) .8" 8<,< $,$! <,-
0 ,enangan kontinyu (0.8 cm) ."8 8/,. $,$. <,8
1
,enangan kontinyu (-.8 cm)>
%ontinyu jenuh ($ cm)
."" 8/,! $,$. <,!
!
%ontinyu jenuh ($ cm) >
genangan pd pembentukan panicle (-.8 cm)
-." 88," $,$- <,$
8
,enangan kontinyu ($8 cm)>
drainase pada anakan maksimum
$.1!! <!,. ",/. <,$
/ %ontinyu jenuh ($ cm) /!- !8,/ $,1< <,"
- ,enangan kontinyu ($8 cm) $.!$. $""," ",/1 <,"
.
,enangan kontinyu ($8 cm)>
drainase pd anakan maksimum>
drainase pada panicle initiation
$.0!" .-,! ",/< .,8
Efisiensi penyaluran
(fisiensi penyaluran di beberapa daerah irigasi di banyak negara telah sering dikaji
dan nampaknya merupakan suatu fungsi dari (a) luas areal daerah irigasi, (b) metoda
pemberian air (kontinyu atau rotasi) dan (c) luasan dari unit rotasi (Tabel $.8).
pabila air diberikan secara kontinyu dengan debit kurang lebih konstan maka tidak
akan terjadi masalah pengorganisasian. %ehilangan air hanya terjadi karena rembesan
dan e&aporasi.
%ehilangan air di saluran dapat diukur dengan beberapa metoda. Salah satu metoda
adalah inflow-outflow atau teknik keseimbangan air pada suatu ruas saluran. 9al ini
dapat dilakukan dengan mengukur debit inflow pada pangkal saluran dan debit
outflow pada ujung saluran. (fisiensi penyaluran air dinyatakan dengan persamaan:
# $"" ×

=
pangkal di debit
ujung di debit pangkal di debit
E
c ...)$./)
3emberian air secara rotasi atau intermittent memerlukan pengaturan pasok air dan
memerlukan bangunan atur dan ukur yang baik. +kuran optimum suatu daerah irigasi
dengan sistim rotasi nampaknya sekitar 8.""" ha. (fisiensi penyaluran pada jaringan
yang lebih kecil (? 0.""" ha) akan menjadi berkurang. 9al yang serupa juga terjadi
apabila areal terlalu luas (@ $".""" ha). Auasan unit rotasi juga mempengaruhi
efisiensi penyaluran. 5erdasarkan Tabel $.8, efisiensi penyaluran optimum akan
dicapai apabila areal unit rotasi sekitar $"" ' 0"" ha yang seringkali merupakan luasan
suatu unit tersier. pabila unit rotasi terlalu kecil (? 0" ha) efisiensi saluran akan
berkurang dengan cepat. 4ika unit rotasi luas (@ -"" ha), saluran dengan dimensi besar
akan cukup panjang dibangun pada kondisi kosong dan isi secara berkala, sehingga
faktor lama pengisian saluran harus dipertimbangkan. 4ika jadwal rotasi tidak
mengikuti jadwal yang ditentukan (pre-determined schedule) dirancang oleh
pengelola irigasi, tetapi didasarkan pada permintaan kelompok petani (on demand),
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
maka angka efisiensi penyaluran pada Tabel $.- akan berkurang dari rerata ",-" pada
on schedule menjadi ",81 pada on demand, karena pengelolaan sistim on demand
menjadi lebih rumit.
Tabel $.-. (fisiensi penyaluran pada sistim primer dan sekunder
0
+kuran jaringan
irigasi (ha)
pasok
kontinyu
3asok rotasi untuk luas unit rotasi (ha)
0" 8" $"" 0"" 8"" 0""" 8"""
0"" ",</ ",/! ",/. ",/<
8"" ",<! ",-$ ",-8 ",-- ",-.
0.""" ",<0 ",-- ",.1 ",./ ",./ ",.1
8.""" ",<" ",-. ",.! ",.- ",.- ",.! ",-/
0".""" ",.. ",-$ ",-8 ",-- ",-. ",-8 ",/< ",/8
8".""" ",./ ",/! ",/. ",/< ",-" ",/. ",/0 ",8<
7atatan: angka di atas digunakan hanya sebagai dugaan awal saja
Efisiensi distribusi
(fisiensi distribusi dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor yakni (a) kehilangan rembesan,
(b) ukuran grup inlet yang menerima air irgasi lewat satu inlet pada sistim petak
tersier, dan (c) lama pemberian air dalam grup inlet (Tabel $..). +ntuk mendapatkan
efisiensi distribusi yang wajar, jaringan tersier harus dirancang dengan baik, dan
mudah dioperasikan oleh petani. Suatu contoh tipikal jaringan irigasi dan drianse pada
petak tersier disajikan pada ,ambar $...
(fisiensi distribusi untuk aliran kontinyu dalam petak tersier terutama disebabkan
oleh besarnya rembesan. 3ada tekstur tanah berliat umumnya sekitar <"#. kan
tetapi aliran kontinyu umumnya tidak digunakan jika petani menginginkan sejumlah
debit tertentu (main d’eau) yang dipasok berbasis rotasi pada setiap grup inlet.
(fisiensi distribusi pada pasok rotasi dalam tersier akan lebih rendah daripada pasok
kontinyu, karena kehilangan air akan terjadi pada waktu pengisian saluran.
Tabel $... (fisiensi distribusi e (d) dalam sistim tersier
+kuran grup
inlet (ha)
3asok
kontinyu
3asok rotasi dengan lama irigasi (jam)
/ $0 0! 0=0! 1=0! -=0!
",8 ",<" ",8/ ",8. ",/0 ",/- ",-" ",-1
$ ",<" ",/$ ",/1 ",// ",-0 ",-8 ",-.
0 ",<" ",/8 ",/. ",-$ ",-- ",-< ",.1
8 ",<" ",-" ",-0 ",-/ ",.$ ",.! ",.-
$" ",<" ",-$ ",-! ",-- ",.1 ",.8 ",.<
0" ",<" ",-0 ",-8 ",-. ",.! ",./ ",<"
7atatan: angka di atas digunakan hanya sebagai dugaan awal saja
0
Sumber: 5os, 6.,. and Bugteren, 4., $<.0. Cn :rrigation (fficiencies. :nternational :nstitute for Aand
;eclamation and :mpro&ement, :A;: 3ublication Bo $<, Dageningen, The Betherlands.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
0. Bangunan Ukur
3
Tujuan 5angunan +kur dalam jaringan irigasi adalah:
(a) +ntuk menghasilkan penggunaan air irigasi yang efisien di tingkat petani yang
disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan air tanaman
(b) +ntuk penelitian terapan dalam e&aluasi tingkat efisiensi penggunaan air irigasi
permukaan, misalnya rembesan)bocoran di saluran, debit yang diperlukan,
panjang alur (furrow), ukuran border dan sebagainya
(c) +ntuk keperluan iuran pelayanan air irigasi diperlukan alat ukur untuk
menetapkan jumlah air yang telah digunakan dan besarnya iuran air yang harus
dibayar oleh pemakai air tersebut
Metoda, Bangunan dan Alat yang Tersedia
EDeirF adalah suatu bangunan ukur yang cukup praktis dan ekonomis dalam
pengukuran debit asalkan tersedia EheadF
!
yang cukup. Deir diklasifikasikan menjadi
ambang tajam (sharp crested weir) (S7D)
8
dan ambang lebar (broad crested weir)
(57D). Termasuk kedalam tipe 57D adalah misalnya 3intu ;omijn. S7D dibagi
menjadi : (a) sharp crested contracted weir (S77D), (b) sharp crested suppressed
weir (S7SD), (c) sharp crested and sharp sided trapeoidal (7ipolletti) weir, (d)
sharp sided !"
"
V-notch weir (Thompson). 5entuk lain yang sering digunakan dalam
irigasi adalah flume misalnya 3arshall Glume. %euntungan utama flume adalah tidak
diperlukan head yang besar.
Alat Ukur Ambang Tajam (sharp crested, SC)
Tipe S7 yang umumnya digunakan sebagai bangunan ukur dalam irigasi adalah: (a)
sharp crested contracted rectangular weir (S77;D), (b) sharp crested suppressed
rectangular weir (S7S;D), (c) sharp crested and sharp sided trapeoidal weir
(7ipolletti), (d) sharp sided !"
"
V-notch weir (Thompson). 5eberapa pertimbangan
dalam pengukuran debit dengan alat ini adalah:
(a) 9ead (beda ele&asi pada ambang dengan muka air di hulu) tidak lebih kecil dari /
cm dan tidak lebih besar dari /" cm untuk debit aliran yang dirancang
(b) +ntuk weir berbentuk segi'empat dan trapesium, EheadF tidak melebihi $)1 dari
panjang weir atau lebar ambang (9 ma= ≤ $)1 A)
(c) Aebar ambang weir harus dipilih sedemikian rupa sehingga head untuk debit
rencana mendekati Ehead maksimumF dengan memperhatikan persyaratan (a) dan
(b).
(d) (le&asi ambang (crest) harus dipasang cukup tinggi sehingga air melimpah
melaluinya dan jatuh bebas (free flow), dengan ruang udara di bawah dan di
sekitar terjunan air (EnappeF)
/
1
2isadur dari buku: %raatH,2.5.; :.%. 6ahajan, $<-8. Small 9ydraulic Structures. :rrigation and
2rainage 3aper no 0/. GC, ;ome.
!
9ead: adalah energi hidrolik yang dinyatakan dalam satuan panjang (m)
8
S7D: ambang tajam; 57D: ambang lebar,
/
Bappe: bentuk terjunan air (lihat ,ambar 8.0)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Pemasangan Weir
Standarad Contracted Rectangular Weir (SCRW)
5eberapa persyaratan pemasangan S7;D adalah sebagai berikut:
(a) 3emasangan harus tegak lurus aliran, dipilih pada ruas saluran yang lurus
(b) Seluruh ambang (crest)
-
harus datar dengan bagian runcing berada di depan
aliran. Tebal ambang antara $ I 0 mm. %edua sisi dari weir segi'empat harus
betul'betul &ertikal dengan tebal yang sama seperti ambang
(c) 7elah (notch) pada bagian hulu (upstream) harus tajam
(d) 4ika tebal ambang lebih dari 0 mm, maka bagian hilir harus di EchamperedF
.
dengan sudut !8
"
atau lebih
(e) 4arak ambang dari dasar pangkal saluran (approach channel)
<
tidak kurang
dari 0 = kedalaman air di atas ambang atau tidak lebih kecil dari 1" cm
(,ambar 0.0)
(f) 3rofil air yang terjun dari ambang (nappe) harus hanya menyentuh ujung
ambang dan pinggirnya, sehingga air bersirkulasi secara bebas di bawah dan
pada sisi nappe.
(g) 3engukuran head diambil sebagai beda ele&asi antara ele&asi ambang dengan
muka air pada jarak ! = head maksimum dari weir ke arah hulu (≥ 9ma= u)s).
ngka pada tiang ukur (peilschall)
$"
dipasang dengan angka nol pada ele&asi
ambang.
(h) Auas penampang #approach channel$ pada jarak $8 I 0" kali dalamnya
sheet, paling tidak . kali luas penampang overflow sheet. 4ika weir pool lebih
kecil dari kriteria tersebut, maka kecepatan pada approach channel terlalu
tinggi dan tiang ukur terlalu rendah
Standard Suppressed Rectangular Weir (SSRW)
3ersyaratan sama dengan 7;D kecuali pada kondisi yang berhubungan dengan side
contraction. 3ada suppressed weir kedua sisi approach channel berimpit dengan kedua
sisi weir dan harus diperpanjang ke sebelah hilir dari ambang untuk mencegah
pengembangan horiHontal dari nappe.
Standard Trapeoidal !"ipolletti# Weir
%emiringan sisi celah berbanding horiHontal $ dengan &ertikal !. Semua persyaratan
pada 7;D berlaku untuk trapeHoidal (,ambar 0.$)
Standard $%
%
&'not() Weir !T)omson#
Semua persyaratan pada 7;D berlaku juga untuk celah <"
"
. 4arak minimum dari sisi
weir ke sisi dinding saluran harus lebih besar dari 0 = head pada weir. 9ead diukur
dari titik potong maksimum muka air dengan ujung (edge) weir. 4arak minimum dari
dasar saluran ke ujung weir adalah 0 = head (≥ 0 = 9
ma=
, ,ambar 0.0).
-
crest: dasar ambang dimana air terjun melewati weir
.
champered: J
<
approach channel: bagian saluran yang menghubungkan bagian semula dengan bangunan ukur
$"
peilschaal: tiang ukur dengan bentuk ukuran yang mudah untuk dibaca dari jarak jauh
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
*umus'rumus Pengukuran Debit
S7;D (Standard 7ontracted ;ectangular Deir)
Grancis formula:
( ) 
0 ) 1
0 , " .! , $ % % & ' − = )0.$)
K (m
1
)det), A: lebar ambang (m); 9: beda ele&asi antara ambang dengan muka air
pada weir pool
$$
(m). 2aftar hubungan antara debit dengan head dapat dilihat pada
Tabel 0.$.
,ambar 0.$. 7ipolletti
dengan lebar ambang /$ cm
(0 ft)
,ambar 0.0.
2iagram
aliran bebas
$$
weir pool: kolam tenang dekat approach channel
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.1. Sekat ukur
7ipolletti pada kondisi
aliran bebas
Standard TrapeHoidal (7ipolletti) Deir
) 1 . 8 ) ./ , $
0 ) 1
 % & ' = ; Tabel debit dapat dilihat Tabel 0.0
Standard <"
"
*'notch Deir (Thompson)
) ! . 8 ) 0
$8
. 0
8
 % g ( '
d
=
g: percepatan gra&itasi (<,. m)det
0
); 7
d
: koefisien debit yang merupakan fungsi dari 9
dan sifat fluida. +mumnya nilai 7
d
L ",8<0, sehingga:
) 8 . 8 ) 1<. , $
0
8
a % '  =
atau dalam satuan K (liter)detik) dan 9 (cm), maka
) 8 . 8 ) "$! , "
0
8
b % '  =
.
2aftar debit dapat dilihat Tabel 0.1.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.! . Sekat ukur
Thompson temporer
terbuat dari pelat baja
sedang digunakan untuk
penelitian irigasi
Pemeli)araan Bangunan Ukur
%egiatan pemeliharaan bangunan ukur supaya bekerja secara baik meliputi kegiatan:
(a) memelihara kolam tenang (pool) bebas dari endapan, sampah dan gulma air, (b)
mencegah bocoran melalui weir, (c) pengecekan ele&asi titik nol tiang ukur
(peilschaal) kaitannya dengan ele&asi ambang, (d) pengecekan kondisi ambang dan
perbaikan apabila diperlukan.
Tabel 0.$. Tabel debit (liter)det) untuk sekat ukur standard segi'empat
((ontracted )ectangular *eir)
9
A (m)
",$8 ",08 ",8" ",-8 $,"" $,08 $,8" $,-8 0,""
K K K K K K K K K
(cm) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det)
$," ",1 ",8 ",< $,! $,. 0,1 0,. 1,0 1,-
$,8 ",8 ",. $,- 0,8 1,! !,0 8,$ 8,< /,.
0," ",. $,1 0,/ 1,< 8,0 /,8 -,. <,$ $",!
0,8 $,$ $,. 1,/ 8,! -,0 <,$ $",< $0,- $!,8
1," $,! 0,1 !,- -,$ <,8 $$,< $!,1 $/,- $<,$
1,8 $,- 0,< 8,< <," $0," $8," $.," 0$," 0!,"
!," 0,$ 1,/ -,0 $",< $!,/ $.,1 00," 08,/ 0<,1
!,8 0,8 !,0 .,/ $1," $-,! 0$,. 0/,0 1",/ 18,"
8," 0,< !,< $",$ $8,0 0",! 08,8 1",- 18,. !",<
8,8 1,1 8,- $$,/ $-,8 01,8 0<,! 18,1 !$,1 !-,0
/," 1,- /,! $1,0 0"," 0/,- 11,8 !",0 !-," 81,.
/,8 !,0 -,0 $!,. 00,8 1",$ 1-,- !8,1 81," /",/
-," !,/ .," $/,/ 08,$ 11,/ !0,$ 8",/ 8<,0 /-,-
-,8 8,$ .,< $.,1 0-,. 1-,0 !/,- 8/,$ /8,/ -8,"
.," 8,/ <,- 0",0 1",/ !$," 8$,! /$,. -0,0 .0,/
.,8 /,$ $",/ 00," 11,! !!,. 8/,0 /-,/ -<," <",!
<," /,/ $$,8 01,< 1/,! !.,. /$,0 -1,/ ./," <.,8
<,8 -,$ $0,! 08,< 1<,! 80,< //,1 -<,. <1,1 $"/,-
$"," -,/ $1,! 0-,< !0,8 8-," -$,/ ./,$ $"",- $$8,0
$",8 .,$ $!,1 1"," !8,/ /$,1 -/,< <0,/ $".,0 $01,<
$$," .,/ $8,1 10,$ !.,< /8,- .0,! <<,0 $$/," $10,.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9
A (m)
",$8 ",08 ",8" ",-8 $,"" $,08 $,8" $,-8 0,""
K K K K K K K K K
(cm) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det)
$," ",1 ",8 ",< $,! $,. 0,1 0,. 1,0 1,-
$,8 ",8 ",. $,- 0,8 1,! !,0 8,$ 8,< /,.
$$,8 <,$ $/,1 1!,0 80,0 -",$ ..," $"/," $01,< $!$,<
$0," <,/ $-,1 1/,! 88,8 -!,- <1,. $$0,< $10," $8$,$
$0,8 $",0 $.,1 1.,/ 8<," -<,1 <<,/ $$<,< $!",1 $/",/
$1," $",- $<,1 !",< /0,! .!," $"8,/ $0-,$ $!.,- $-",0
$1,8 $$,0 0",! !1,0 //," ..,. $$$,/ $1!,! $8-,1 $.",$
$!," $$,. 0$,! !8,8 /<,/ <1,- $$-,. $!$,< $//," $<",$
$!,8 $0,1 00,8 !-,< -1,0 <.,/ $0!," $!<,! $-!,. 0"",0
$8," $0,. 01,8 8",0 --," $"1,- $1",! $8-,$ $.1,< 0$",/
$8,8 $1,! 0!,/ 80,- .",- $".,. $1/,< $/!,< $<1," 00$,$
$/," $1,< 08,- 88,$ .!,/ $$!," $!1,! $-0,< 0"0,1 01$,.
$/,8 $!,! 0/,. 8-,/ ..,! $$<,1 $8",$ $.",< 0$$,- 0!0,/
$-," $8," 0-,< /",$ <0,1 $0!,/ $8/,. $.<,$ 00$,1 081,/
$-,8 $8,8 0<," /0,/ </,1 $1"," $/1,- $<-,1 01$," 0/!,-
$.," $/," 1",$ /8,0 $"",1 $18,8 $-",/ 0"8,- 0!",. 0-/,"
$.,8 $/,8 1$,0 /-,. $"!,! $!$," $--,/ 0$!,0 08",. 0.-,!
$<," $-,$ 10,1 -",! $".,8 $!/,/ $.!,- 000,. 0/",< 0<<,"
$<,8 $-,/ 11,! -1," $$0,- $80,1 $<$,< 01$,8 0-$,$ 1$",-
0"," $.,$ 1!,/ -8,- $$/,. $8.," $<<,$ 0!",1 0.$,! 100,/
0",8 $.,/ 18,- -.,! $0$,$ $/1,. 0"/,8 0!<,0 0<$,< 11!,/
0$," $<,$ 1/,. .$,$ $08,! $/<,/ 0$1,< 08.,0 1"0,! 1!/,-
0$,8 $<,/ 1.," .1,. $0<,- $-8,8 00$,! 0/-,1 1$1,$ 18<,"
00," 0",$ 1<,$ ./,/ $1!," $.$,8 00<," 0-/,! 101,< 1-$,!
00,8 0",/ !",1 .<,! $1.,! $.-,8 01/,/ 0.8,- 11!,. 1.1,<
01," 0$,$ !$,! <0,$ $!0,< $<1,/ 0!!,! 0<8,$ 1!8,. 1</,/
01,8 0$,/ !0,/ <8," $!-,! $<<,. 080,0 1"!,/ 18-," !"<,!
0!," 00,$ !1,- <-,. $8$,< 0"/," 0/"," 1$!,$ 1/.,0 !00,1
0!,8 00,8 !!,< $"",/ $8/,! 0$0,0 0/.," 101,. 1-<,/ !18,1
08," 01," !/," $"1,8 $/$," 0$.,8 0-/," 111,8 1<$," !!.,8
08,8 01,8 !-,$ $"/,! $/8,/ 00!,< 0.!,$ 1!1,1 !"0,/ !/$,.
0/," 01,< !.,1 $"<,1 $-",1 01$,1 0<0,0 181,0 !$!,0 !-8,0
0/,8 0!,1 !<,! $$0,0 $-8," 01-,- 1"",8 1/1,0 !0/," !..,-
0-," 0!,. 8",/ $$8,$ $-<,- 0!!,0 1".,- 1-1,1 !1-,. 8"0,1
0-,8 08,0 8$,- $$.,$ $.!,! 08",. 1$-,$ 1.1,! !!<,. 8$/,$
0.," 08,/ 80,< $0$," $.<,0 08-,! 108,8 1<1,- !/$,. 81","
0.,8 0/," 8!," $0!," $<!," 0/!," 11!," !"!," !-!," 8!1,<
0<," 0/,! 88,0 $0-," $<.,. 0-",- 1!0,8 !$!,! !./,0 88.,"
0<,8 0/,. 8/,1 $1"," 0"1,- 0--,! 18$,$ !0!,. !<.,8 8-0,0
1"," 0-,0 8-,! $11," 0".,/ 0.!,0 18<,. !18,! 8$$," 8./,8
1",8 0-,/ 8.,/ $1/,$ 0$1,8 0<$," 1/.,8 !!/," 801,8 /"$,"
1$," 0-,< 8<,- $1<,$ 0$.,8 0<-,< 1--,1 !8/,- 81/,$ /$8,8
1$,8 0.,1 /",. $!0,0 001,8 1"!,. 1./,$ !/-,8 8!.,. /1",$
10," 0.,/ /0," $!8,0 00.,8 1$$,. 1<8," !-.,1 8/$,/ /!!,.
10,8 0<," /1,$ $!.,1 011,8 1$.,. !"!," !.<,0 8-!,! /8<,-
11," 0<,1 /!,0 $8$,! 01.,/ 108,. !$1," 8"",0 8.-,! /-!,/
11,8 0<,/ /8,1 $8!,8 0!1,- 110,< !00,$ 8$$,0 /"",! /.<,/
1!," 0<,< //,! $8-,/ 0!.,. 1!"," !1$,0 800,! /$1,/ -"!,.
1!,8 1",0 /-,8 $/",- 081,< 1!-,$ !!",1 811,/ /0/,. -0","
18," 1",8 /.,/ $/1,. 08<,$ 18!,1 !!<,/ 8!!,. /!",$ -18,1
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9
A (m)
",$8 ",08 ",8" ",-8 $,"" $,08 $,8" $,-8 0,""
K K K K K K K K K
(cm) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det)
$," ",1 ",8 ",< $,! $,. 0,1 0,. 1,0 1,-
$,8 ",8 ",. $,- 0,8 1,! !,0 8,$ 8,< /,.
18,8 1",- /<,- $/-," 0/!,1 1/$,/ !8.,< 88/,0 /81,! -8",-
1/," 1$," -",- $-",$ 0/<,8 1/.,. !/.,0 8/-,8 ///,< -//,1
1/,8 1$,0 -$,. $-1,1 0-!,- 1-/,$ !--,/ 8-<," /.",! -.$,<
1-," 1$,8 -0,< $-/,! 0-<,< 1.1,8 !.-," 8<",8 /<!,$ -<-,/
1-,8 1$,- -1,< $-<,/ 0.8,0 1<",. !</,8 /"0,$ -"-,- .$1,!
1.," 1$,< -8," $.0,. 0<",8 1<.,1 8"/," /$1,. -0$,8 .0<,1
1.,8 10,$ -/," $.8,< 0<8,. !"8,- 8$8,/ /08,8 -18,! .!8,1
1<," 10,1 --,$ $.<,$ 1"$,0 !$1,0 808,0 /1-,1 -!<,1 ./$,1
1<,8 10,! -.,$ $<0,1 1"/,8 !0",- 81!,< /!<,$ -/1,1 .--,8
!"," 10,/ -<,$ $<8,8 1$$,< !0.,0 8!!,/ //$," ---,! .<1,-
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$0
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Tabel 0.0. Tabel debit (liter)det) untuk sekat ukur 7ipolletti
9
A (m)
",$8 ",08 ",8" ",-8 $,"" $,08 $,8" $,-8 0,""
K K K K K K K K K
(cm) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det)
$," ",1 ",8 ",< $,! $,< 0,1 0,. 1,1 1,-
$,8 ",8 ",< $,- 0,/ 1,! !,1 8,$ /," /,.
0," ",. $,1 0,/ 1,< 8,1 /,/ -,< <,0 $",8
0,8 $,$ $,. 1,- 8,8 -,! <,0 $$," $0,< $!,-
1," $,! 0,! !,. -,0 <,- $0,$ $!,8 $/,< $<,1
1,8 $,. 1," /,$ <,$ $0,0 $8,0 $.,1 0$,1 0!,!
!," 0,0 1,- -,! $$,0 $!,< $.,/ 00,1 0/," 0<,.
!,8 0,- !,! .,< $1,1 $-,. 00,0 0/,/ 1$,$ 18,8
8," 1,$ 8,0 $",! $8,/ 0",. 0/," 1$,0 1/,! !$,/
8,8 1,/ /," $0," $.," 0!," 1"," 1/," !0," !.,"
/," !,$ /,. $1,- 0",8 0-,1 1!,0 !$," !-,. 8!,-
/,8 !,/ -,- $8,! 01,$ 1",. 1.,8 !/,0 81,< /$,/
-," 8,0 .,/ $-,0 08,. 1!,! !1,$ 8$,- /",1 /.,<
-,8 8,- <,/ $<,$ 0.,- 1.,0 !-,. 8-,1 //,< -/,!
.," /,1 $",8 0$," 1$,/ !0,$ 80,/ /1,$ -1,- .!,0
.,8 /,< $$,8 01," 1!,/ !/,$ 8-,/ /<,$ .",- <0,0
<," -,8 $0,/ 08,$ 1-,- 8",0 /0,. -8,1 .-,< $"",!
<,8 .,0 $1,/ 0-,0 !",. 8!,8 /.,$ .$,- <8,1 $".,<
$"," .,. $!,- 0<,! !!,$ 8.,. -1,8 ..,0 $"0,< $$-,/
$",8 <,8 $8,. 1$,/ !-,8 /1,1 -<,$ <!,< $$",- $0/,/
$$," $",0 $-," 11,< 8",< /-,< .!,. $"$,. $$.,. $18,-
$$,8 $",< $.,$ 1/,1 8!,! -0,8 <",- $".,. $0/,< $!8,$
$0," $$,/ $<,1 1.,- 8.," --,1 </,/ $$/," $18,1 $8!,/
$0,8 $0,1 0",/ !$,$ /$,- .0,0 $"0,. $01,1 $!1,< $/!,!
$1," $1,$ 0$,. !1,/ /8,! .-,0 $"<," $1",. $80,/ $-!,!
$1,8 $1,. 01,$ !/,$ /<,0 <0,1 $$8,1 $1.,! $/$,8 $.!,8
$!," $!,/ 0!,! !.,- -1,$ <-,! $0$,. $!/,$ $-",8 $<!,<
$!,8 $8,! 08,- 8$,1 --," $"0,- $0.,! $8!," $-<,- 0"8,!
$8," $/,0 0-," 8!," .$," $".,$ $18,$ $/0,$ $.<,$ 0$/,$
$8,8 $-," 0.,! 8/,. .8,$ $$1,8 $!$,< $-",1 $<.,/ 00-,"
$/," $-,< 0<,. 8<,8 .<,1 $$<," $!.,. $-.,/ 0".,1 01.,$
$/,8 $.,- 1$,0 /0,1 <1,8 $0!,- $88,. $.-," 0$.,0 0!<,1
$-," $<,/ 10,/ /8,0 <-,. $1",! $/1," $<8,/ 00.,0 0/",-
$-,8 0",! 1!," /.,$ $"0,$ $1/,0 $-",0 0"!,0 01.,1 0-0,1
$.," 0$,1 18,8 -$," $"/,8 $!0," $--,/ 0$1,$ 0!.,/ 0.!,$
$.,8 00,0 1-," -!," $$$," $!.," $.8," 000," 08<," 0</,"
$<," 01,$ 1.,8 --," $$8,8 $8!," $<0,/ 01$,$ 0/<,/ 1".,$
$<,8 0!," !"," .",$ $0",$ $/",0 0"",0 0!",0 0.",1 10",1
0"," 08," !$,/ .1,0 $0!,. $//,! 0".," 0!<,8 0<$,$ 110,-
0",8 08,< !1,0 ./,1 $0<,8 $-0,/ 0$8,. 08<," 1"0,$ 1!8,1
0$," 0/,. !!,- .<,8 $1!,0 $-<," 001,- 0/.,8 1$1,0 18.,"
0$,8 0-,. !/,! <0,- $1<,$ $.8,! 01$,. 0-.,$ 10!,8 1-",<
00," 0.,. !.," </," $!1,< $<$,< 01<,< 0.-,< 118,< 1.1,<
00,8 0<,. !<,/ <<,1 $!.,< $<.,8 0!.,$ 0<-,. 1!-,! 1<-,"
01," 1",. 8$,1 $"0,/ $81,< 0"8,0 08/,8 1"-,- 18<," !$",1
01,8 1$,. 81," $"8,< $8.,< 0$$,< 0/!,< 1$-,. 1-",. !01,.
0!," 10,. 8!,- $"<,1 $/!," 0$.,- 0-1,! 10.," 1.0,- !1-,!
0!,8 11,. 8/,! $$0,. $/<,0 008,/ 0.$,< 11.,1 1<!,- !8$,$
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9
A (m)
",$8 ",08 ",8" ",-8 $,"" $,08 $,8" $,-8 0,""
K K K K K K K K K
(cm) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det) (lt)det)
$," ",1 ",8 ",< $,! $,< 0,1 0,. 1,1 1,-
$,8 ",8 ",< $,- 0,/ 1,! !,1 8,$ /," /,.
08," 1!,< 8.,$ $$/,1 $-!,! 010,8 0<",/ 1!.,. !"/,< !/8,"
08,8 18,< 8<,< $$<,. $-<,/ 01<,8 0<<,! 18<,1 !$<,$ !-<,"
0/," 1-," /$,/ $01,1 $.!,< 0!/,/ 1".,0 1/<,< !1$,8 !<1,0
0/,8 1.,$ /1,! $0/,< $<",1 081,- 1$-,0 1.",/ !!!," 8"-,8
0-," 1<,$ /8,0 $1",8 $<8,- 0/$," 10/,0 1<$,! !8/,- 80$,<
0-,8 !",0 /-,$ $1!,$ 0"$,0 0/.,0 118,1 !"0,1 !/<,! 81/,8
0.," !$,1 /.,< $1-,. 0"/,- 0-8,/ 1!!,8 !$1,! !.0,1 88$,0
0.,8 !0,! -",- $!$,8 0$0,0 0.1," 181,- !0!,8 !<8,0 8//,"
0<," !1,/ -0,/ $!8,0 0$-,< 0<",8 1/1,$ !18,- 8".,1 8.$,"
0<,8 !!,- -!,8 $!<," 001,8 0<.," 1-0,8 !!-," 80$,8 8</,"
1"," !8,. -/,! $80,. 00<,0 1"8,/ 1.0," !8.,! 81!,< /$$,1
1",8 !-," -.,1 $8/,- 018," 1$1,1 1<$,/ !-"," 8!.,1 /0/,/
1$," !.,0 .",1 $/",8 0!",. 10$," !"$,1 !.$,/ 8/$,. /!0,$
1$,8 !<,1 .0,0 $/!,! 0!/,/ 10.,. !$$," !<1,1 8-8,8 /8-,-
10," 8",8 .!,0 $/.,1 080,8 11/,- !0",< 8"8," 8.<,0 /-1,!
10,8 8$,- ./,0 $-0,1 08.,8 1!!,/ !1",. 8$/,< /"1,$ /.<,0
11," 80,< ..,0 $-/,1 0/!,8 180,/ !!",. 80.,< /$-,$ -"8,0
11,8 8!,$ <",0 $.",1 0-",8 1/",/ !8",. 8!$," /1$,$ -0$,1
1!," 88,1 <0,0 $.!,! 0-/,/ 1/.,- !/",< 881,$ /!8,1 -1-,8
1!,8 8/,8 <!,0 $..,8 0.0,- 1-/,< !-$,$ 8/8,! /8<,/ -81,.
18," 8-,. </,1 $<0,/ 0..,< 1.8,$ !.$,! 8--,- /-!," --",1
18,8 8<," <.,! $</,- 0<8,$ 1<1,! !<$,. 8<",$ /..,8 -./,.
1/," /",1 $"",! 0"",< 1"$,1 !"$,. 8"0,0 /"0,/ -"1,$ ."1,8
1/,8 /$,8 $"0,8 0"8,$ 1"-,/ !$",0 8$0,- /$8,0 -$-,. .0",1
1-," /0,. $"!,- 0"<,1 1$!," !$.,/ 801,1 /0-,< -10,/ .1-,0
1-,8 /!,$ $"/,. 0$1,/ 10",1 !0-,$ 811,< /!",- -!-,8 .8!,1
1.," /8,! $".,< 0$-,< 10/,. !18,- 8!!,/ /81,/ -/0,8 .-$,!
1.,8 //,/ $$$,$ 000,0 111,0 !!!,1 888,! ///,8 ---,/ ...,-
1<," /.," $$1,1 00/,8 11<,. !81," 8//,1 /-<,8 -<0,. <"/,"
1<,8 /<,1 $$8,! 01",< 1!/,1 !/$,. 8--,0 /<0,/ .".,$ <01,8
!"," -",/ $$-,/ 018,1 180,< !-",8 8..,0 -"8,. .01,8 <!$,$
Pars)all +lume !P+#
3arshall Glume adalah suatu alat ukur berdasarkan kedalaman kritik
$0
(critical depth
measuring device) yang dapat dipasang di suatu saluran atau alur (furrow) untuk
mengukur debit. Terdiri dari tiga bagian utama yakni: (a) bagian penyempitan
(converging or contracting section), (b) bagian tenggorokan (throat section), dan (c)
bagian pelebaran (diverging atau e+panding section). 5entuk dan dimensi dapat
dilihat pada ,ambar 0.8 dan Tabel 0.!. %ondisi pengukuran terdiri dari 0 kondisi
yakni (a) kondisi aliran bebas (free-flow)
$1
dan (b) kondisi tenggelam (submergence),
Tabel 0.1. 2aftar debit sekat ukur Thompson
$0
kedalaman kritik (critical depth): kedalaman aliran dimana bilangan Groude (G) L $
$1
free'flow: aliran bebas; kebalikannya adalah submergence: aliran tenggelam
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9 K 9 K 9 K 9 K
(cm) (lt)det) (cm) (lt)det) (cm) (lt)det) (cm) (lt)det)
$," ","$ $",8 8,"" 0",8 0/,/! 1",8 -$,<0
$,8 ","! $$," 8,/0 0$," 0.,0< 1$," -!,<$
0," ",". $$,8 /,0. 0$,8 1","$ 1$,8 --,<-
0,8 ",$! $0," /,<. 00," 1$,-. 10," .$,$"
1," ",00 $0,8 -,-1 00,8 11,/0 10,8 .!,1"
1,8 ",10 $1," .,81 01," 18,80 11," .-,8.
!," ",!8 $1,8 <,1- 01,8 1-,!. 11,8 <",<!
!,8 ",/" $!," $",0- 0!," 1<,8$ 1!," <!,1-
8," ",-. $!,8 $$,0$ 0!,8 !$,/" 1!,8 <-,..
8,8 ",<< $8," $0,0" 08," !1,-8 18," $"$,!/
/," $,01 $8,8 $1,0! 08,8 !8,<- 18,8 $"8,$0
/,8 $,8$ $/," $!,1! 0/," !.,0/ 1/," $".,./
-," $,.$ $/,8 $8,!. 0/,8 8",/$ 1/,8 $$0,/.
-,8 0,$/ $-," $/,/. 0-," 81,"1 1-," $$/,8.
.," 0,81 $-,8 $-,<! 0-,8 88,80 1-,8 $0",8/
.,8 0,<8 $.," $<,0! 0.," 8.,". 1.," $0!,/0
<," 1,!" $.,8 0",/$ 0.,8 /",-$ 1.,8 $0.,-/
<,8 1,.< $<," 00,"1 0<," /1,!" 1<," $10,<.
$"," !,!1 $<,8 01,8$ 0<,8 //,$- 1<,8 $1-,0.
0"," 08,"! 1"," /<,"$ !"," $!$,/-
%riteria aliran bebas dan tenggelam pada 3arshall Glume adalah sebagai berikut:
Aebar tenggorokan (D) 5atas aliran bebas (9b)9a)
$!
$8 I 01 cm (/ I < inchi) /"#
1" I 0!! cm ($ I . feet) -"#
5atas atas dari kondisi tenggelam adalah 9b)9a L <8#. ;umus'rumus yang
digunakan adalah:
%ondisi liran 5ebas (-ree -low):
D L $ I . feet: ) / . 8 ) !
"0/ . "
800 . $
a % * '
*
a
 = ; K: cfs, D: ft, 9
a
: ft
$8
D L < inchi: ) / . 8 ) "- , 1
81 . $
b % '
a
 =
D L / inchi: ) / . 8 ) "/ , 0
8. . $
c % '
a
 =
2aftar debit pada kondisi aliran bebas dapat dilihat pada Tabel 0.8.
Tabel 0.!. 2imensi standard dan %apasitas ukur 3arshal Glume untuk berbagai
ukuran D kondisi free flow
Aebar D 5 7 2 ( G , % B M N
%apasitas
(lt)det)
$!
9
a
:tinggi aliran di atas ambang pada bagian u)s; 9
b
: tinggi aliran di atas ambang pada bagian d)s
$8
2alam satuan 5ritish: satuan debit cfsL cubic feet per second atau ft
1
)detik. $ cfs L ","0. m
1
)detik
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$8
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
cm 5ritish cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm 6in 6aks
$8,0 / in !$,8 /1," 8",. !!,1 /$," 1",8 /$," -,/ $$,! 8,$ -,/ $,!0 $$",!
00,< < in 8.,. ./,! 1.,$ 8-,8 -/,1 1",8 -/,0 -,/ $$,! 8,$ -,/ 0,88 08$,.
1",8 $ ft <$,8 $1!,! /$," .!,8 <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ 1,$$ !88,/
!8,. $ O ft </,/ $!0,1 -/,0 $"0 <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ !,0< /</,0
/$ 0 ft $"$,- $8<,/ <$,8 $0",- <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ $$,.< <1/,-
<$,8 1 ft $$$,. $/!,/ $00," $8-,1 <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ $-,0/ $.!0/
$00 ! ft $00," $-<,8 $80,8 $<1,. <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ 1/,-< $.<00
$80,8 8 ft $10,0 $<!,! $.1," 01",1 <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ !8,0. 0.!00
$.1 / ft $!0,1 0"<,! 0$1,8 0//,< <$,8 /$," <$,8 -,/ 00,< 8,$ -,/ -1,8. 0.<0<
Tabel 0.8. 2ebit 3arshal Glume kondisi aliran bebas untuk berbagai ukuran D
9ead 2ebit K (Aiter)det), untuk ukuran D
9a $8,0
cm
00.<
cm
1".8
cm
!8.-
cm
/$
cm
<$.! cm $0$.<
cm
$80.!
cm
$.0.<
cm
(cm) ".8" ft ".-8 ft $."" ft $.8" ft 0."" ft 1."" ft !."" ft 8."" ft /."" ft
1," $,8 0,8 1,1 !,.
1,8 $,< 1,0 !,0 /,$
!," 0,! 1,< 8,$ -,8
!,8 0,. !,- /,0 <," $$,- $-,"
8," 1,! 8,8 -,0 $",8 $1,. 0","
8,8 1,< /,1 .,! $0,0 $8,< 01,1
/," !,8 -,0 <,8 $1,< $.,0 0/,/ 1!,< !0,< ","
/,8 8,$ .,0 $",. $8,. 0",- 1",0 1<,/ !.,- ","
-," 8,- <,0 $0,$ $-,- 01,0 11,< !!,8 8!,. ","
-,8 /,! $",0 $1,! $<,- 08,. 1-,. !<,/ /$,0 -0,/
.," -," $$,0 $!,. 0$,- 0.,8 !$,. 8!,< /-,. .",8
.,8 -,. $0,1 $/,0 01,. 1$,1 !/," /",! -!,/ ..,-
<," .,8 $1,! $-,- 0/," 1!,0 8",1 //,$ .$,- <-,$
<,8 <,0 $!,/ $<,0 0.,1 1-,0 8!,- -0," .<," $"8,<
$"," $"," $8,. 0",. 1",/ !",1 8<,1 -.,$ </,/ $$!,<
$",8 $",. $-," 00,! 11," !1,! /!," .!,1 $"!,! $0!,0
$$," $$,- $.,1 0!," 18,! !/,- /.,< <",- $$0,1 $11,.
$$,8 $0,8 $<,/ 08,- 1-,< 8"," -1,. <-,1 $0",/ $!1,/
$0," $1,! 0",< 0-,! !",8 81,! -.,< $"!,$ $0<," $81,-
$0,8 $!,1 00,0 0<,0 !1,$ 8/,< .!,$ $$$," $1-,/ $/!,"
$1," $8,0 01,/ 1$," !8,. /",8 .<,8 $$.,$ $!/,8 $-!,/
$1,8 $/,$ 08," 10,. !.,8 /!,$ <!,< $08,1 $88,8 $.8,8
$!," $-,$ 0/,! 1!,- 8$,1 /-,. $"",8 $10,- $/!,- $</,8
$!,8 $.," 0-,< 1/,/ 8!,0 -$,/ $"/,$ $!",1 $-!,0 0"-,<
$8," $<," 0<,! 1.,8 8-,$ -8,8 $$$,< $!.," $.1,. 0$<,!
$8,8 0"," 1",< !",8 /"," -<,! $$-,. $88,< $<1,/ 01$,0
$/," 0$,$ 10,! !0,8 /1," .1,! $01,. $/1,< 0"1,/ 0!1,0
$/,8 00,$ 1!," !!,8 //,$ .-,8 $1"," $-0," 0$1,. 088,!
$-," 01,0 18,/ !/,/ /<,0 <$,- $1/,0 $.",1 00!,0 0/-,<
$-,8 0!,1 1-,0 !.,- -0,! <8,< $!0,8 $..,. 01!,. 0.",8
$.," 08,! 1.,. 8",. -8,/ $"",0 $!.,< $<-,! 0!8,8 0<1,!
$.,8 0/,8 !",8 81," -.,. $"!,8 $88,8 0"/,$ 08/,! 1"/,8
$<," 0-,/ !0,0 88,0 .0,$ $".,< $/0,$ 0$!,< 0/-,8 1$<,<
$<,8 0.,. !1,< 8-,! .8,8 $$1,! $/.,. 001,< 0-.,. 111,!
0"," 1"," !8,/ 8<,- ..,< $$-,< $-8,- 011,$ 0<",0 1!-,$
0",8 1$,0 !-,! /$,< <0,1 $00,8 $.0,/ 0!0,1 1"$,. 1/$,$
0$," 10,! !<,0 /!,0 <8,. $0-,0 $.<,/ 08$,- 1$1,/ 1-8,0
0$,8 11,/ 8$," //,/ <<,1 $1$,< $</,- 0/$,0 108,8 1.<,/
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9ead 2ebit K (Aiter)det), untuk ukuran D
9a $8,0
cm
00.<
cm
1".8
cm
!8.-
cm
/$
cm
<$.! cm $0$.<
cm
$80.!
cm
$.0.<
cm
(cm) ".8" ft ".-8 ft $."" ft $.8" ft 0."" ft 1."" ft !."" ft 8."" ft /."" ft
00," 1!,< 80,. /<," $"0,< $1/,- 0"1,< 0-",< 11-,/ !"!,$
00,8 1/,$ 8!,/ -$,! $"/,8 $!$,8 0$$,0 0.",- 1!<,. !$.,<
01," 1-,! 8/,8 -1,. $$",0 $!/,! 0$.,/ 0<",/ 1/0,1 !11,.
01,8 1.,- 8.,! -/,0 $$1,< $8$,! 00/,$ 1"",/ 1-!,. !!.,<
0!," !"," /",1 -.,- $$-,/ $8/,! 011,- 1$",- 1.-,/ !/!,1
0!,8 !$,1 /0,0 .$,0 $0$,! $/$,8 0!$,! 10$," !"",8 !-<,.
08," !0,- /!,0 .1,. $08,1 $//,/ 0!<,$ 11$,! !$1,8 !<8,8
08,8 !!," //,0 ./,1 $0<,$ $-$,. 08-," 1!$,< !0/,- 8$$,!
0/," !8,! /.,0 ..,< $11,$ $--,$ 0/!,< 180,/ !!",$ 80-,8
0/,8 !/,. -",0 <$,8 $1-," $.0,! 0-1," 1/1,1 !81,/ 8!1,-
0-," !.,0 -0,0 <!,0 $!$," $.-,. 0.$,$ 1-!,0 !/-,1 8/",0
0-,8 !<,/ -!,1 </,< $!8," $<1,0 0.<,1 1.8,0 !.$,$ 8-/,.
0.," 8$," -/,! <<,/ $!<,$ $<.,/ 0<-,8 1</,1 !<8," 8<1,/
0.,8 80,8 -.,8 $"0,1 $81,0 0"!,0 1"8,< !"-,8 8"<,$ /$",/
0<," 81,< .",/ $"8," $8-,! 0"<,- 1$!,! !$.,< 801,! /0-,.
0<,8 88,! .0,- $"-,. $/$,/ 0$8,! 100,< !1",1 81-,. /!8,0
1"," 8/,< .!,< $$",/ $/8,. 00$,$ 11$,8 !!$,< 880,1 //0,-
1",8 8.,! .-," $$1,! $-",$ 00/,. 1!",0 !81,/ 8/-," /.",!
1$," 8<,< .<,0 $$/,0 $-!,! 010,/ 1!<," !/8,! 8.$,. /<.,1
1$,8 /$,8 <$,! $$<,$ $-.,- 01.,! 18-,. !--,1 8</,. -$/,1
10," /1," <1,- $00," $.1,$ 0!!,1 1//,. !.<,1 /$$,< -1!,8
10,8 /!,/ <8,< $0!,< $.-,8 08",1 1-8,. 8"$,! /0-,$ -80,<
11," //,$ <.,0 $0-,. $<0," 08/,0 1.!,< 8$1,/ /!0,8 --$,8
11,8 /-,- $"",8 $1",. $</,8 0/0,1 1<!," 80/," /8.," -<",0
1!," /<,1 $"0,. $11,. 0"$," 0/.,! !"1,1 81.,! /-1,- ."<,$
1!,8 -$," $"8,$ $1/,. 0"8,/ 0-!,8 !$0,/ 88$," /.<,8 .0.,0
18," -0,/ $"-,! $1<,. 0$",0 0.",- !00," 8/1,/ -"8,! .!-,!
18,8 -!,0 $"<,. $!0,< 0$!,. 0./,< !1$,8 8-/,! -0$,8 .//,.
1/," -8,< $$0,0 $!8,< 0$<,8 0<1,0 !!$,$ 8.<,0 -1-,- ../,1
1/,8 --,/ $$!,/ $!<," 00!,0 0<<,/ !8",- /"0,0 -8!," <"/,"
1-," -<,0 $$-," $80,0 00<," 1"/," !/",! /$8,1 --",8 <08,<
1-,8 .",< $$<,! $88,1 011,- 1$0,! !-",0 /0.,! -.-," <!8,<
1.," .0,- $0$,. $8.,8 01.,8 1$.,< !."," /!$,- ."1,. <//,$
1.,8 .!,! $0!,1 $/$,/ 0!1,! 108,! !<"," /88,$ .0",/ <./,8
1<," ./,$ $0/,. $/!,< 0!.,1 110," 8""," //.,/ .1-,/ $""-,"
1<,8 .-,< $0<,1 $/.,$ 081,0 11.,/ 8$"," /.0,$ .8!,- $"0-,-
!"," .<,/ $1$,. $-$,1 08.,$ 1!8,1 80",0 /<8,. .-$,< $"!.,8
!",8 <$,! $1!,1 $-!,/ 0/1,$ 180," 81",! -"<,/ ..<,1 $"/<,8
!$," <1,0 $1/,< $--,< 0/.,$ 18.,- 8!",- -01,8 <"/,. $"<",/
!$,8 <8," $1<,! $.$,0 0-1,0 1/8,8 88$,$ -1-,! <0!,! $$$$,<
!0," </,. $!0," $.!,8 0-.,0 1-0,! 8/$,8 -8$,8 <!0,0 $$11,1
!0,8 <.,/ $!!,/ $.-,< 0.1,! 1-<,1 8-0," -/8,- </"," $$8!,<
!1," $"",8 $!-,0 $<$,1 0..,8 1./,0 8.0,/ --<,< <-.," $$-/,-
!1,8 $"0,1 $!<,. $<!,- 0<1,- 1<1,0 8<1,0 -<!,1 <</,$ $$<.,/
!!," $"!,0 $80,8 $<.,$ 0<.,< !"",0 /"!," .".,. $."$!,! $.00",/
!!,8 $"/,$ $88,$ 0"$,8 1"!,$ !"-,1 /$!,- .01,1 $."10,- $.0!0,.
!8," $".," $8-,. 0"8," 1"<,! !$!,! /08,/ .1.," $."8$,0 $.0/8,$
!8,8 $/",8 0".,8 1$!,- !0$,/ /1/,8 .80,- $."/<,. $.0.-,/
!/," $/1,0 0$0," 10"," !0.,. /!-,8 ./-,8 $."..,8 $.1$",1
!/,8 $/8,< 0$8,8 108,! !1/," /8.,/ ..0,8 $.$"-,! $.111,$
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9ead 2ebit K (Aiter)det), untuk ukuran D
9a $8,0
cm
00.<
cm
1".8
cm
!8.-
cm
/$
cm
<$.! cm $0$.<
cm
$80.!
cm
$.0.<
cm
(cm) ".8" ft ".-8 ft $."" ft $.8" ft 0."" ft 1."" ft !."" ft 8."" ft /."" ft
!-," $/.,- 0$<," 11",. !!1,1 //<,- .<-,8 $.$0/,1 $.18/,"
!-,8 $-$,! 000,/ 11/,0 !8",/ /.",< <$0,/ $.$!8,! $.1-<,$
!.," $-!,0 00/,$ 1!$,- !8.," /<0,$ <0-,. $.$/!,/ $.!"0,1
!.,8 $--," 00<,- 1!-,0 !/8,! -"1,8 <!1,$ $.$.1,< $.!08,-
!<," $-<,. 011,1 180,- !-0,< -$!,< <8.,8 $.0"1,1 $.!!<,0
!<,8 $.0,/ 01-," 18.,1 !.",! -0/,1 <-!," $.000,< $.!-0,.
8"," $.8,! 0!",/ 1/1,. !.-,< -1-,. <.<,8 $.0!0,8 $.!</,/
8",8 $..,0 0!!,1 1/<,8 !<8,8 -!<,! $.""8,0 $.0/0,1 $.80",/
8$," $<$,$ 0!.," 1-8,$ 8"1,$ -/$,$ $."0",< $.0.0,0 $.8!!,/
8$,8 $<!," 08$,- 1.",. 8$",. --0,. $."1/,. $.1"0,0 $.8/.,<
80," $</,< 088,! 1./,8 8$.,8 -.!,/ $."80,- $.100,! $.8<1,0
80,8 $<<,. 08<,0 1<0,0 80/,0 -</,! $."/.,- $.1!0,/ $./$-,-
81," 0"0,- 0/1," 1<.," 81!," .".,1 $.".!,. $.1/0,< $./!0,!
81,8 0"8,/ 0//,- !"1,. 8!$,< .0",1 $.$"$," $.1.1,! $.//-,$
8!," 0".,/ 0-",8 !"<,/ 8!<,- .10,! $.$$-,1 $.!"!," $./<0,$
8!,8 0$$,8 0-!,! !$8,! 88-,/ .!!,8 $.$11,- $.!0!,- $.-$-,$
88," 0$!,8 0-.,0 !0$,1 8/8,/ .8/,/ $.$8",$ $.!!8,8 $.-!0,1
88,8 0$-,8 0.0,$ !0-,0 8-1,/ ./.,< $.$//,- $.!//,! $.-/-,/
8/," 00",8 0.8,< !11,$ 8.$,/ ..$,0 $.$.1,1 $.!.-,! $.-<1,$
8/,8 001,8 0.<,. !1<,$ 8.<,- .<1,8 $.0""," $.8".,8 $..$.,-
8-," 00/,/ 0<1,. !!8,$ 8<-,. <"8,< $.0$/,. $.80<,. $..!!,!
8-,8 00<,/ 0<-,- !8$,$ /"8,< <$.,! $.011,- $.88$,$ $..-",1
8.," 010,- 1"$,/ !8-,0 /$!,$ <1",< $.08",- $.8-0,/ $..</,1
8.,8 018,- 1"8,/ !/1,0 /00,1 <!1,8 $.0/-,- $.8<!,0 $.<00,!
8<," 01.,. 1"<,/ !/<,1 /1",/ <8/,0 $.0.!,< $./$8,< $.<!.,-
8<,8 0!$,< 1$1,/ !-8,8 /1.,< </.,< $.1"0,$ $./1-,- $.<-8,$
/"," 0!8,$ 1$-,/ !.$,/ /!-,0 <.$,- $.1$<,! $./8<,/ 0.""$,-
/",8 0!.,0 10$,/ !.-,. /88,/ <<!,/ $.11/,. $./.$,/ 0."0.,1
/$," 08$,1 108,- !<!," //!," $.""-,8 $.18!,1 $.-"1,- 0."88,$
/$,8 10<,. 8"",1 /-0,8 $."0",! $.1-$,. $.-08,< 0.".0,$
/0," 111,< 8"/,/ /.$," $."11,! $.1.<,8 $.-!.,0 0.$"<,$
/0,8 11.," 8$0,< /.<,8 $."!/,8 $.!"-,0 $.--",/ 0.$1/,1
/1," 1!0,$ 8$<,0 /<.,$ $."8<,- $.!08," $.-<1,0 0.$/1,/
/1,8 1!/,0 808,8 -"/,- $."-0,< $.!!0,< $..$8,. 0.$<$,$
/!," 18",! 81$,< -$8,1 $."./,$ $.!/",< $..1.,/ 0.0$.,-
/!,8 18!,/ 81.,1 -0!," $."<<,8 $.!-.,< $../$,! 0.0!/,!
/8," 18.,. 8!!,. -10,- $.$$0,. $.!<-,$ $...!,! 0.0-!,0
/8,8 1/1," 88$,0 -!$,8 $.$0/,1 $.8$8,1 $.<"-,! 0.1"0,0
//," 1/-,0 88-,- -8",1 $.$1<,. $.811,/ $.<1",/ 0.11",1
//,8 1-$,! 8/!,0 -8<,$ $.$81,1 $.88$,< $.<81,< 0.18.,8
/-," 1-8,- 8-",. -/.," $.$//,< $.8-",! $.<--,0 0.1./,.
/-,8 1."," 8--,1 --/,< $.$.",/ $.8..,< 0.""",- 0.!$8,1
/.," 1.!,1 8.1,< -.8,. $.$<!,1 $./"-,8 0."0!,1 0.!!1,<
/.,8 1..,/ 8<",8 -<!,. $.0".,$ $./0/,0 0."!.," 0.!-0,/
/<," 1<0,< 8<-,0 ."1,. $.000," $./!8," 0."-$,- 0.8"$,!
/<,8 1<-,0 /"1,. .$0,. $.018,. $.//1,. 0."<8,/ 0.81",!
-"," !"$,/ /$",8 .0$,< $.0!<,. $./.0,. 0.$$<,/ 0.88<,8
-",8 !"/," /$-,1 .1$," $.0/1,. $.-"$,. 0.$!1,- 0.8..,-
-$," !$",! /0!," .!",0 $.0--,< $.-0",< 0.$/-,< 0./$.,$
-$,8 !$!,. /1",. .!<,! $.0<0," $.-!"," 0.$<0,$ 0./!-,8
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9ead 2ebit K (Aiter)det), untuk ukuran D
9a $8,0
cm
00.<
cm
1".8
cm
!8.-
cm
/$
cm
<$.! cm $0$.<
cm
$80.!
cm
$.0.<
cm
(cm) ".8" ft ".-8 ft $."" ft $.8" ft 0."" ft 1."" ft !."" ft 8."" ft /."" ft
-0," !$<,0 /1-,/ .8.,/ $.1"/,0 $.-8<,1 0.0$/,8 0./--,$
-0,8 !01,/ /!!,! ./-,. $.10",! $.--.,/ 0.0!$," 0.-"/,.
-1," !0.,$ /8$,0 .--,$ $.11!,- $.-<.," 0.0/8,/ 0.-1/,-
-1,8 !10,/ /8.,$ ../,8 $.1!<,$ $..$-,8 0.0<",1 0.-//,/
-!," !1-," //8," .<8,. $.1/1,8 $..1-," 0.1$8," 0.-</,-
-!,8 !!$,/ /-$,< <"8,0 $.1--,< $..8/,/ 0.11<,< 0..0/,<
-8," !!/,$ /-.,< <$!,- $.1<0,! $..-/,1 0.1/!,< 0..8-,0
7ontoh 3engukuran 2ebit
(a) %ondisi aliran bebas
9
b
)9
a
L !")/- L /"#; 2ari Tabel 0.8: 9
a
L /- cm; D L 0 ft, maka K L -/. lt)dt.
(b) %ondisi tenggelam (submerged)
+ntuk D L / inchi dan < inci, debit dalam kondisi tenggelam dapat dibaca langsung
dari ,ambar 0./ atau 0.-.
7ontoh:
• D L / inci, 9
a
L $,0" ft, 9
b
L $,". ft. 9
b
)9
a
L $,".)$,0 L ",<" L <"# → kondisi
tenggelam.
• 2ari ,ambar 0./, pada kondisi aliran tenggelam maka K L 8",< liter)det atau $,.
cfs.
+ntuk D antara $ I . feet, debit dalam keadaan tenggelam ditentukan dengan
menggunakan diagram koreksi (,ambar 0..). 2iagram tersebut untuk D L $ feet dan
untuk D @ $ ft menggunakan faktor pengganda 6 seperti pada Tabel 0./ di bawah
ini.
Tabel 0./. Gaktor 3engganda 6 untuk berbagai nilai D
D 6
(ft) (cm)
$ 1",8 $
$,8 !8,- $,!
0 /$," $,.
1 <$,8 0,!
! $00," 1,$
8 $80,8 1,-
/ $.1," !,1
7ontoh:
• D L 1 ft; 9
a
L /! cm; 9
b
L /$ cm; 9
b
)9
a
L ",<8 @ ",-", kondisi tenggelam.
• 2ari ,ambar 0..: Gaktor %oreksi untuk D L $ ft adalah 8,-8 cfs ($/1 lt)det).
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
$<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
• Gaktor 3engganda untuk D L 1 ft, 6 L 0,!. %oreksi untuk D L 1 ft : 8,-8 = 0,! L
$1,. cfs (1<" lt)det).
• 2ari Tabel 0.8 untuk kondisi aliran bebas pada D L 1 ft dan 9
a
L /! cm, maka K
aliran bebas L 1.,! cfs ($."./ lt)det).
• 6aka K
submergence
L $"./ P 1<" L /</ lt)det (0!,/ cfs)
3emasangan 3arshall Glume
:nformasi dan data yang diperlukan:
(a) 2ebit maksimum dan minimum yang akan diukur
(b) %edalaman aliran
(c) %ecepatan maksimum dan dimensi saluran pada lokasi pemasangan.
2imensi tersebut harus mencakup: lebar, talud (side slope), dalam, tinggi
tanggul di bagian hulu
$/
(upstream banks) atau jagaan (free board)
7ontoh:
K
ma=
L 8// lt)det, kedalaman aliran L -- cm, lebar saluran L 1 m, kedalaman total
saluran L <8 cm. 3ilih ukuran 3arshall GlumeJ
3ertama asumsikan submergence -"# tidak boleh dilampaui sehingga pengukuran
debit dapat dilakukan hanya berdasarkan nilai terukur 9
a
. Sebagai Erule of thumbF
$-
:
W antara ,-. / 0 lebar saluran. 2engan lebar saluran 1 m ($" ft), pertama'tama
pilih D L 8 ft ($)0 = $" ft).
(a) D L 8 ft:
o D L 8 ft, K L 8// lt)det, maka dari Tabel 0.8 didapat 9a L 1",8 cm
o 9b)9a L ",-, maka 9b L ",- = 1",8 cm L 0$,18 cm. 5erdasarkan ,ambar
0.$", 9ead loss L ",18 ft ($",8 cm)
o 5erdasarkan ,ambar 0.<: 2 L kedalaman normal L -- cm. %edalaman aliran
di u)s L -- > $",8 cm L .-,8 cm, masih lebih kecil dari yang tersedia <8 cm.
o 6asih ada kemungkinan untuk memperkecil D
(b) D L ! ft:
o D L ! ft; K L 8// lt)det, maka dari Tabel 0.8 didapat 9a L 18 cm.
o 9b)9a L ",-, maka 9b L ",- = 18 cm L 08 cm. 5erdasarkan ,ambar 0.$": 2
L kedalaman normal L -- cm. 6aka M L 2 P 9b L -- P 08 L 80 cm.
o +ntuk melihat kenaikan muka air di sebelah hulu (u)s), digunakan ,ambar
0.<: K L 8// lt)det (0" cfs); 9b)9a L ",-; D L ! ft → 2ari ,ambar 0.<:
$/
9ulu atau udik (up'stream) disingkat u)s; hilir (down'stream) disingkat d)s
$-
;ule of thumb: perkiraan profesional atau engineering judgment
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
ctual loss head (A) atau beda ele&asi muka air antara u)s dan d)s L $1 cm
(",!0 ft).
o 6aka kedalaman aliran di u)s L -- > $1 L <" cm. Sedangkan kedalaman total
saluran <8 cm. 4adi masih memungkinkan untuk memperkecil D
(c) D L 1 ft
o 2engan cara yang sama, didapat A L $/ cm. %edalaman aliran di u)s L -- >
$/ L <1 cm ? <8 cm. 4adi masih memungkinkan untuk memperkecil D.
o M L -- P ",- = !1 L -- P 1" L !- cm. 4adi crest harus dipasang pada jarak !-
cm dari dasar saluran
(d) D L 0 ft
o 2engan cara yang sama didapatkan A L 0$ cm; kedalaman aliran di u)s L --
> 0$ L <. cm.
o M L 2 P 9b L -- P ",- = 88 L -- P 1< L 1. cm.
o %arena pada D L 0 ft, kedalaman aliran u)s melewati kedalaman saluran
yang tersedia maka D L 0 ft tidak dapat dipilih.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.8. Tampak atas dan samping 3arshal Glume terbuat dari beton
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
00
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0./. 2iagram untuk aliran tenggelam (submergence) pada 3arshal Glume D L / inci
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
01
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.-. 2iagram aliran tenggelam untuk 3arshal Glume D L < inci
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0... 2iagram untuk menghitung debit kondisi tenggelam pada 3G $ ft (1",8 cm)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
08
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.<. 3enampang memanjang 3arshal Glume memperlihatkan
penentuan ele&asi crest
"ut'T)roat +lume !"T+#
7TG dikembangkan ahir'ahir ini untuk menanggulangi beberapa kerumitan dalam
pembuatan dan konstruksi 3G. ,ambar 0.$$ memperlihatkan bentuk dari 7TG. Glume
ini mempunyai lantai dasar yang datar dan dinding &ertikal. Seperti pada 3G, 7TG
dapat beroperasi baik pada kondisi aliran bebas maupun tenggelam.
%euntungan 7TG dibandingkan dengan 3G adalah:
(a) %onstruksi lebih sederhana karena dasar datar dan tidak adanya bagian
tenggorokan
(b) %arena sudut bagian penyempitan dan pengembangan tetap sama untuk semua
flume, maka ukuran flume dapat diubah dengan menggerakkan dinding ke
dalam atau ke luar.
(c) 2aftar debit dari suatu ukuran flume dapat dikembangkan dari daftar debit
yang tersedia
3enentuan 2ebit 2alam %ondisi liran 5ebas
n
a
% ( ' = ..)0.-); dimana satuan K: cms, 7: koefisien aliran bebas (free flow
coefficient); 9
a
: kedalaman aliran sebelah hulu (u.s flow depth) (m).
"08 . $
* / ( = Q)0..); dimana %: koefisien panjang flume (flume length coefficient);
D: lebar tenggorokan (m). Bilai % dan n (flow e+ponent) didapat dari ,ambar 0.$0
untuk panjang flume (A) tertentu. +ntuk pengukuran debit yang teliti nisbah 1
a
-2
)arus ≤ %,3. Baiknya nilai nisbah tersebut menyebabkan berkurangnya ketelitian.
5erdasarkan ,ambar 0.$0, dapat disusun nilai %, n, dan St untuk berbagai nilai A
(panjang flume) seperti pada Tabel 0.-a.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.$". 2iagram untuk penentuan head loss melalui 3arshal Glume
Tabel 0.-a. Bilai %, n, dan St untuk berbagai 3anjang 7TG
3anjang flume A (m) % n St
",8" 8,-8 0,"- ",/"
",-8 !,1 $,<" ",/1
$," 1,8 $,." ",//
$,8 0,- $,/. ",-0
0," 0,1 $,/1 ",-/
0,8 0,$ $,8- ",-.
7ontoh 3erhitungan:
A L $,8 m, D L ",1" m. 5agaimana rumus debit untuk 7G tersebutJ
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
• 2ari ,ambar 0.$0 atau Tabel 0.-a, pada A L $,8 m, maka n L $,/. dan % L 0,-.
• 3ersamaan free flow : 7 L % D
$."08
L 0,- = (",1")
$,"08
L ",-./
• 6aka persamaan debit: K L ",-./ 9
a

$,/.
• 4ika 9
a
L ",1" m, maka K L ",-./ (",1")
$,/.
L ",$"! cms L $"! lt)det.
Syarat aliran bebas adalah 9
b
)9
a
tidak melewati nilai batas tertentu yang disebut
sebagai #transition submergence$ (St) yang nilainya dapat ditentukan dari ,ambar
0.$0 untuk berbagai nilai panjang flume (A). 3ada A L $,8" m, maka batas
submergence St L ",-0. 4ika 9b)9a @ ",-0, maka rumus di atas tidak berlaku.
,ambar 0.$$a. Sketsa 7ut'Throat Glume
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.$$b. Sketsa 7ut'Throat Glume pada uji saluran laboratorium
3emasangan 7TG untuk mendapatkan kondisi liran 5ebas
2ata dan informasi yang diperlukan:
(a) 2ebit maksimum yang akan diukur
(b) %edalaman aliran pada debit tersebut
(c) 9ead loss yang diijinkan (allowable head loss) melalui flume
+ntuk tujuan rancangan, head loss dapat diambil sebagai perubahan ele&asi
muka air antara bagian yang masuk dengan yang keluar dari flume. %edalaman d)s
sama dengan kedalaman semula sebelum pemasangan flume, sedangkan kedalaman
aliran di u)s akan naik sebesar head loss. %enaikan ini dibatasi oleh tinggi jagaan di
u)s. %arena D dihitung dalam rumus debit, maka D harus dipasang secara tepat. 4ika
7TG akan dibangun dari beton, maka pada tenggorokan harus dipasang besi siku
supaya ukuran D tepat.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
0<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.$0. ,eneralisasi koefisien aliran bebas dan nilai eksponen n,
serta St untuk 7TG (satuan dalam metrik)
Sebagai pedoman yang harus diikuti adalah 9
a
)A ≤ ",!. 3engukuran head (9
a
atau 9
b
)
dapat menggunakan peilschaal atau sumuran pada jarak yang telah ditetapkan.
3rosedur pemasangan 7TG supaya beroperasi dalam kondisi aliran bebas adalah
sebagai berikut:
(a) Tentukan debit maksimum yang akan diukur
(b) 3ada lokasi dimana 7TG akan dipasang, buat garis muka air pada tanggul dan
maksimum kedalaman aliran yang diijinkan
(c) 2engan menggunakan persamaan K L 7 9
a
n
, hitung 9
a
pada debit maksimum
pada ukuran 7TG yang akan digunakan
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
(d) Tempatkan lantai 7TG pada kedalaman 9
b
yang tidak boleh melebihi 9
a
= St
atau (9
b
≤ 9
a
= St)
Tidak ada aturan baku mengenai besarnya perbandingan antara D dengan A atau D
dengan 9
a
. Cleh karena itu direkomendasikan perbandingan D dengan A
menggunakan data seperti tercantum pada Tabel 0.- yang didasarkan pada hasil uji'
coba di laboratorium. 3rosedur tersebut di atas diperagakan dengan ilustrasi seperti
pada ,ambar 0.$1.
+ntuk pengukuran debit di petak tersier sebagai pegangan umum dapat digunakan
Tabel 0.-b di bawah ini. 3elaksanaan di lapangan disesuaikan dengan dimensi saluran
yang tersedia. Tinggi dasar 7TG dari dasar saluran sekitar $" cm. Sambungan sayap
ke tanggul saluran dapat digunakan dinding tegak &ertikal seperti pada ,ambar
0.$$b.
Tabel 0.-b. 3egangan umum penggunaan 7TG di petak tersier
2ebit maksimum
(lt)det)
A (m) D (m) 5 (m)
Aokasi pengukuran
dari tenggorokan (m)
9a 9b
? $" ",8 ",$" ",0$ ",$$ ",0.
$"I8" ",8 ",1" ",!$ ",$$ ",0.
8"I$"" $," ",/" ",.0 ",00 ",8/
@ $"" $,8 $," $,11 ",11 ",.1
%eterangan: A: panjang flume; D: lebar tenggorokan; 5: lebar flume
7ontoh $:
A L $,00 m, D L ",1/ m akan dipasang dalam kondisi aliran bebas (,ambar 0.$1).
2ebit maksimum L ",0 cms. S
t
untuk 7TG ini ditentukan berdasarkan ,ambar 0.$0, di
mana S
t
L /..0#.
• 3ersamaan 2ebit: K L 7 9
a
n
→ 9
a
L(K)7)
$)n
• 7 L % D
$."08
; % L 1,$ (,ambar 0.$0), maka 7 L 1,$ (",1/)
$,"08
L $,$ ; n L $,-8

m %
a
1-8 . " $.0 . "
$ . $
0 . "
8- . "
-8 . $
$
= =






=
.
• %edalaman d)s: 9
b
L 9
a
= St L ",1-8 = ",/.0 L ",08/ m.
• 6aka lantai 7TG harus ditempatkan tidak lebih rendah dari ",08/ m di bawah
garis air tertinggi di saluran (,ambar 0.$1)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1$
W
L/3 2L/3
L
B

=

W

+

L
/
4
,
5
1 !"
2L/# 5L/#
$a $b
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.$1. 7ut throat flume (pandangan atas dan samping)
,ambar 0.$1. 3emasangan 7TG
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
10
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
7ontoh 0:
6isalkan diinginkan ukuran 7TG yang logis untuk mengukur debit maksimum 18"
lt)det di bawah kondisi aliran bebas. 2iketahui kedalaman maksimum di saluran 1"
cm dan head loss tidak boleh melebihi $8 cm.
• 3ada kondisi tersebut kedalaman maksimum d)s L 1" cm dan kedalaman
maksimum di u)s L 1" > $8 L !8 cm.
• Submergence L 1")!8 L ",/- atau /-#.
• 2ari ,ambar 0.$0 dapat dilihat St @ /-#, maka A @ $,$8 m.
• +ntuk memilih ukuran 7TG yang sesuai dapat digunaan Tabel 0.-.
• Secara tentatif ambil ukuran 7TG !" = $." cm (karena A @ $,$8 m), dapatkan nilai
9
a
untuk K L 18" lt)det, 9
a
L 8! cm, dimana lebih besar dari maksimum
kedalaman u)s !8 cm.
• 2engan demikian diperlukan ukuran 7TG yang lebih besar.
• 7oba dengan ukuran 7TG /" cm = $." cm, 9
a
L !0 cm, untuk K L ",18 cms.
%arena nilai ini lebih kecil dari !8 cm, maka ukuran 7TG ini dapat dipilih (/" =
$." cm). Dalaupun demikian D yang lebih kecil dapat dipilih misalnya antara !"
I /" cm, akan tetapi diperlukan suatu Tabel rating tersendiri.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
11
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Tabel 0.-a. %alibrasi aliran bebas untuk 7TG tertentu dinyatakan dalam
Aebar D (cm) = 3anjang A (cm)
9a
2ebit (liter)det)
$" = <" 0" = <" 1" = <" 0" =
$."
!" =
$."
/" =
$."
1" =
0-"
/" =
0-"
$"" =
0-"
(cm) cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm
",8 " " " " " " " " $
$," " " " " " $ " $ 0
$,8 " " " " $ $ $ 0 1
0," " $ $ $ 0 0 $ 1 8
0,8 " $ $ $ 0 1 0 ! -
1," $ $ 0 $ 1 8 1 8 <
1,8 $ 0 0 0 ! / 1 - $$
!," $ 0 1 0 8 - ! . $!
!,8 $ 1 ! 1 / < 8 $" $-
8," $ 1 ! 1 - $$ / $0 0"
8,8 0 ! 8 ! . $0 - $! 01
/," 0 ! / 8 < $! . $/ 0/
/,8 0 8 - 8 $$ $/ < $. 1"
-," 1 / . / $0 $. $" 0" 1!
-,8 1 / < - $! 0$ $$ 00 1.
.," 1 - $$ - $8 01 $0 08 !0
.,8 ! . $0 . $- 08 $1 0- !/
<," ! < $1 < $. 0. $8 1" 8"
<,8 8 $" $! $" 0" 1" $/ 10 8!
$"," 8 $$ $/ $$ 00 11 $- 18 8<
$",8 / $0 $- $0 0! 1/ $. 1. /1
$$," / $1 $< $1 0/ 1< 0" !" /.
$$,8 - $! 0$ $1 0- !0 0$ !1 -1
$0," - $8 00 $! 0< !8 01 !/ -.
$0,8 . $/ 0! $8 10 !. 0!" !< .1
$1," . $. 0/ $/ 1! 8$ 0/ 80 .<
$1,8 < $< 0. $. 1/ 8! 0- 8/ <!
$!," $" 0" 1" $< 1. 8- 0< 8< <<
$!,8 $" 00 1$ 0" !" /$ 1$ /0 $"8
$8," $$ 01 1! 0$ !1 /! 10 // $$$
$8,8 $0 0! 1/ 00 !8 /. 1! /< $$-
$/," $0 0/ 1. 01 !- -0 1/ -1 $00
$/,8 $1 0- !" 0! 8" -8 1- -/ $0<
$-," $! 0< !0 0/ 80 -< 1< ." $18
$-,8 $! 1$ !8 0- 88 .1 !$ .1 $!$
$.," $8 10 !- 0. 8. .- !1 .- $!-
$.,8 $/ 1! !< 1" /" <$ !8 <$ $8!
$<," $- 1/ 80 1$ /1 <8 !- <8 $/"
$<,8 $. 1- 8! 10 // << !< << $/-
0"," $. 1< 8- 1! /. $"! 8$ $"1 $-!
0",8 $< !$ /" 18 -$ $". 80 $"- $."
0$," 0" !1 /0 1/ -! $$0 88 $$$ $.-
0$,8 0$ !8 /8 1. -- $$- 8- $$8 $<!
00," 00 !- /. 1< ." $0$ 8< $$< 0"$
00,8 01 !< -$ !$ .1 $0/ /$ $01 0"<
01," 0! 8$ -! !0 ./ $1" /1 $0. 0$/
01,8 08 81 -- !! .< $18 /8 $10 001
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9a
2ebit (liter)det)
$" = <" 0" = <" 1" = <" 0" =
$."
!" =
$."
/" =
$."
1" =
0-"
/" =
0-"
$"" =
0-"
(cm) cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm
",8 " " " " " " " " $
0!," 0/ 88 ." !8 <0 $!" /- $1- 01$
0!,8 0- 8- .1 !- </ $!8 /< $!$ 01.
08," 0. 8< ./ !< << $8" -0 $!/ 0!/
08,8 0< /$ .< 8" $"0 $88 -! $8" 08!
0/," 1" /1 <0 80 $"/ $/" -/ $88 0/$
0/,8 1$ // </ 81 $"< $/8 -. $8< 0/<
0-," 10 /. << 88 $$0 $-" .$ $/! 0--
0-,8 11 -" $"0 8- $$/ $-8 .1 $/< 0.8
0.," 1! -1 $"/ 8< $$< $." .8 $-! 0<1
0.,8 18 -8 $"< /" $01 $./ .. $-< 1"0
0<," 1- -. $$1 /0 $0/ $<$ <" $-. 1$"
0<,8 1. ." $$/ /! $1" $<- <1 $.. 1$.
1"," 1< .0 $0" // $1! 0"0 <8 $<1 10-
1",8 !" .8 $0! /- $1- 0". <. $<< 118
1$," !$ .. $0- /< $!$ 0$1 $"" 0"! 1!!
1$,8 !1 <" $1$ -$ $!8 0$< $"1 0"< 181
10," !! <1 $18 -1 $!< 008 $"8 0$! 1/$
10,8 !8 </ $1< -8 $80 01$ $". 0$< 1-"
11," !/ <. $!1 -- $8/ 01- $$" 00! 1-<
11,8 !. $"$ $!- -< $/" 0!1 $$1 01" 1..
1!," !< $"! $8$ .$ $/! 0!< $$/ 018 1<-
1!,8 8" $"- $88 .1 $/. 088 $$. 0!$ !"/
18," 80 $$" $8< .8 $-0 0/$ $0$ 0!/ !$/
18,8 81 $$0 $/! .- $-/ 0/- $0! 080 !08
1/," 8! $$8 $/. .< $." -01 $0/ 08- !1!
1/,8 8/ $$. $-0 <$ $.8 0-< $0< 0/1 !!!
1-," 8- $0$ $-- <1 $.< 0./ $10 0/. !81
1-,8 8< $0! $.$ <8 $<1 0<0 $18 0-! !/1
1.," /" $0- $.8 <- $<- 0<< $1. 0." !-1
1.,8 /0 $1$ $<" << 0"0 1"8 $!" 0./ !.0
1<," /1 $1! $<8 $"$ 0"/ 1$0 $!1 0<$ !<0
1<,8 /8 $1- $<< $"1 0$" 1$. $!/ 0<- 8"0
!"," // $!" 0"! $"8 0$8 108 $!< 1"1 8$0
!",8 /. $!1 0"< $". 0$< 110 $80 1"< 800
!$," /< $!- 0$1 $$" 00! 11< $88 1$8 810
!$,8 -$ $8" 0$. $$0 00. 1!8 $8. 10$ 8!0
!0," -0 $81 001 $$! 011 180 $/$ 10- 880
!0,8 -! $8- 00. $$/ 01- 18< $/! 111 8/1
!1," -/ $/" 011 $$< 0!0 1// $/- 11< 8-1
!1,8 -- $/1 01. $0$ 0!- 1-1 $-" 1!/ 8.!
!!," -< $/- 0!1 $01 08$ 1." $-1 180 8<!
!!,8 ." $-" 0!. $0/ 08/ 1.. $-/ 18. /"8
!8," .0 $-! 081 $0. 0/$ 1<8 $-< 1/! /$8
!8,8 $1" 0// !"0 $.0 1-$ /0/
!/," $11 0-" !"< $.8 1-- /1-
!/,8 $18 0-8 !$- $.< 1.1 /!.
!-," $1. 0." !0! $<0 1<" /8<
!-,8 $!" 0.8 !10 $<8 1</ //<
!.," $!0 0<" !1< $<. !"1 /.$
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
18
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9a
2ebit (liter)det)
$" = <" 0" = <" 1" = <" 0" =
$."
!" =
$."
/" =
$."
1" =
0-"
/" =
0-"
$"" =
0-"
(cm) cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm
",8 " " " " " " " " $
!.,8 $!8 0<8 !!- 0"$ !"< /<0
!<," $!- 1"" !8! 0"8 !$/ -"1
!<,8 $8" 1"8 !/0 0". !01 -$!
8"," $80 1$" !-" 0$$ !0< -08
8",8 $88 1$8 !-- 0$! !1/ -1-
8$," $8- 10$ !.8 0$. !!1 -!.
8$,8 $/" 10/ !<1 00$ !8" -/"
80," $/0 11$ 8"$ 00! !8- --$
80,8 $/8 11/ 8"< 00. !/1 -.1
81," $/. 1!0 8$- 01$ !-" -<!
81,8 $-" 1!- 808 018 !-- ."/
8!," $-1 180 811 01. !.! .$.
8!,8 $-/ 18. 8!$ 0!0 !<$ .1"
88," $-. 1/1 88" 0!8 !<. -!0
88,8 $.$ 1/< 88. 0!< 8"8 .8!
8/," $.! 1-! 8// 080 8$1 .//
8/,8 $./ 1." 8-8 08/ 80" .-.
8-," $.< 1.8 8.1 08< 80- .<"
8-,8 $<0 1<$ 8<$ 0/1 81! <"0
8.," $<8 1</ /"" 0// 8!$ <$!
8.,8 $<- !"0 /"< 0-" 8!< <0-
8<," 0"" !". /$- 0-1 88/ <1<
8<,8 0"1 !$! /0/ 0-- 8/1 <80
/"," 0"/ !$< /18 0.$ 8-$ </!
/",8 0.! 8-. <--
/$," 0.. 8./ <.<
/$,8 0<0 8<1 $.""0
/0," 0<8 /"$ $."$8
/0,8 0<< /". $."0.
/1," 1"1 /$/ $."!"
/1,8 1"- /0! $."81
/!," 1$" /1$ $."//
/!,8 1$! /1< $."-<
/8," 1$. /!- $."<0
/8,8 100 /88 $.$"/
//," 0/" //0 $.$$<
//,8 11" /-" $.$10
/-," 111 /-. $.$!8
/-,8 11- /./ $.$8<
/.," 1!$ /<! $.$-0
/.,8 1!8 -"0 $.$./
/<," 1!< -$" $.$<<
/<,8 181 -$. $.0$1
-"," 18- -0/ $.00/
-",8 1/$ -1! $.0!"
-$," 1/8 -!0 $.08!
-$,8 1/< -8" $.0/.
-0," 1-1 -8< $.0.$
-0,8 1-- -/- $.0<8
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
9a
2ebit (liter)det)
$" = <" 0" = <" 1" = <" 0" =
$."
!" =
$."
/" =
$."
1" =
0-"
/" =
0-"
$"" =
0-"
(cm) cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm cm
",8 " " " " " " " " $
-1," 1.$ --8 $.1"<
-1,8 1.8 -.! $.101
-!," 1.< -<0 $.11-
-!,8 1<1 ."" $.180
-8," 1<. ."< $.1//
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Tabel 0.-b. 2ebit pada 7TG: A L ",8 m; 9b)9a R ",/"; 9a)AR",!; %L8,-8; nL0,"-
(DL",$", 7L",8!1; DL",0", 7L$,$"8; DL",1", 7L$,/-!)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
A (m) ",8" ",8" ",8"
D (m) ",$" ",0" ",1"
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
$," ","! ","0 ",". ",$0
$,$ ","8 ","0 ",$" ",$8
$,0 ","/ ","0 ",$0 ",$.
$,1 ","- ","1 ",$! ",0$
$,! ",". ","1 ",$/ ",0!
$,8 ","< ","1 ",$< ",0.
$,/ ",$" ","1 ",0$ ",10
$,- ",$0 ","1 ",0! ",1/
$,. ",$1 ","! ",0- ",!$
$,< ",$8 ","! ",1" ",!/
0," ",$- ","! ",1! ",8$
0,$ ",$. ","! ",1- ",8/
0,0 ",0" ","! ",!$ ",/0
0,1 ",00 ","8 ",!8 ",/.
0,! ",0! ","8 ",!< ",-!
0,8 ",0/ ","8 ",81 ",.$
0,/ ",0. ","8 ",8. ",..
0,- ",1$ ","8 ",/1 ",<8
0,. ",11 ","/ ",/- $,"0
0,< ",1/ ","/ ",-1 $,$"
1," ",1. ","/ ",-. $,$.
1,$ ",!$ ","/ ",.1 $,0/
1,0 ",!! ","/ ",.< $,18
1,1 ",!- ","- ",<8 $,!!
1,! ",8" ","- $,"$ $,81
1,8 ",81 ","- $,"- $,/0
1,/ ",8/ ","- $,$1 $,-0
1,- ",8< ","- $,0" $,.0
1,. ",/0 ",". $,0- $,<0
1,< ",// ",". $,1! 0,"1
!," ",/< ",". $,!$ 0,$!
!,$ ",-1 ",". $,!. 0,08
!,0 ",-- ",". $,8/ 0,1-
!,1 ",.$ ","< $,/! 0,!.
!,! ",.! ","< $,-0 0,/"
!,8 ",.. ","< $,." 0,-1
A (m) ",8" ",8" ",8"
D (m) ",$" ",0" ",1"
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
!,/ ",<1 ","< $,.. 0,./
!,- ",<- ","< $,<- 0,<<
!,. $,"$ ",$" 0,"/ 1,$0
!,< $,"/ ",$" 0,$8 1,08
8," $,$" ",$" 0,0! 1,1<
8,$ $,$8 ",$" 0,11 1,81
8,0 $,$< ",$" 0,!1 1,/.
8,1 $,0! ",$$ 0,81 1,.1
8,! $,0< ",$$ 0,/1 1,<.
8,8 $,1! ",$$ 0,-1 !,$1
8,/ $,1< ",$$ 0,.1 !,0<
8,- $,!! ",$$ 0,<! !,!8
8,. $,8" ",$0 1,"! !,/$
8,< $,88 ",$0 1,$8 !,-.
/," $,/" ",$0 1,0- !,<8
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
1<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Tabel 0.-c. 2ebit pada 7TG, A L ",-8 m 9b)9a R ",/1; 9a)AR",!; %L!,1; nL$,<
(DL",$", 7L",!"/; DL",0", 7L",.0/; DL",1", 7L$,080; DL",!, 7L$,/.$)
A (m) ",-8 ",-8 ",-8 ",-8
D (m) ",$" ",0" ",1" ",!"
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
$,"" ","/ ","$ ",$1 ",0" ",0-
$,$" ",". ","$ ",$/ ",0! ",10
$,0" ","< ","0 ",$< ",0. ",1.
$,1" ",$$ ","0 ",00 ",11 ",!!
$,!" ",$0 ","0 ",08 ",1. ",8"
$,8" ",$! ","0 ",0. ",!1 ",8.
$,/" ",$/ ","0 ",10 ",!. ",/8
$,-" ",$. ","0 ",1/ ",8! ",-1
$,." ",0" ","0 ",!" ",/$ ",.$
$,<" ",00 ","1 ",!! ",/- ",<"
0,"" ",0! ","1 ",!< ",-! ",<<
0,$" ",0/ ","1 ",8! ",.$ $,"<
0,0" ",0< ","1 ",8< ",.< $,$<
0,1" ",1$ ","1 ",/! ",<- $,1"
0,!" ",1! ","1 ",/< $,"8 $,!$
0,8" ",1- ","1 ",-8 $,$1 $,80
0,/" ",!" ","1 ",." $,00 $,/!
0,-" ",!0 ","! ",./ $,1$ $,-/
0,." ",!/ ","! ",<1 $,!" $,..
0,<" ",!< ","! ",<< $,8" 0,"$
1,"" ",80 ","! $,"/ $,/" 0,$8
1,$" ",88 ","! $,$0 $,-" 0,0<
1,0" ",8< ","! $,$< $,.$ 0,!1
1,1" ",/0 ","! $,0- $,<0 0,8-
1,!" ",// ","8 $,1! 0,"1 0,-1
1,8" ",-" ","8 $,!$ 0,$! 0,..
1,/" ",-1 ","8 $,!< 0,0/ 1,"!
1,-" ",-- ","8 $,8- 0,1. 1,0"
1,." ",.$ ","8 $,/8 0,8$ 1,1-
1,<" ",.8 ","8 $,-! 0,/1 1,8!
!,"" ",<" ","8 $,.0 0,-/ 1,-$
!,$" ",<! ","8 $,<$ 0,<" 1,.<
!,0" ",<. ","/ 0,"" 1,"1 !,"-
!,1" $,"1 ","/ 0,"< 1,$- !,0/
!,!" $,"- ","/ 0,$< 1,1$ !,!8
!,8" $,$0 ","/ 0,0. 1,!/ !,/!
!,/" $,$- ","/ 0,1. 1,/" !,.!
!,-" $,00 ","/ 0,!. 1,-8 8,"!
!,." $,0- ","/ 0,8. 1,<$ 8,08
A (m) ",-8 ",-8 ",-8 ",-8
D (m) ",$" ",0" ",1" ",!"
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
!,<" $,10 ","- 0,/. !,"/ 8,!/
8,"" $,1- ","- 0,-< !,00 8,/-
8,$" $,!0 ","- 0,.< !,1. 8,.<
8,0" $,!. ","- 1,"" !,88 /,$$
8,1" $,81 ","- 1,$$ !,-0 /,11
8,!" $,8. ","- 1,01 !,.< /,8/
8,8" $,/! ","- 1,1! 8,"/ /,."
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
8,/" $,-" ","- 1,!/ 8,0! -,"1
8,-" $,-/ ",". 1,8- 8,!0 -,0-
8,." $,.0 ",". 1,/< 8,/" -,80
8,<" $,.. ",". 1,.0 8,-. -,--
/,"" $,<! ",". 1,<! 8,<- .,"0
/,$" 0,"" ",". !,"- /,$/ .,0-
/,0" 0,"/ ",". !,$< /,18 .,81
/,1" 0,$0 ",". !,10 /,88 .,."
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!0
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!8
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
!/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
80
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
81
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
88
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
8<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
18,! $/8,!- ",$. 08",-1 11/,-0 !01,0/
18,8 $//,01 ",$. 08$,.< 11.,0- !08,0$
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Tabel 0.-g. 2ebit pada 7TG, A L 0,8 m; 9b)9a R ",-.; 9a)AR",!; %L0,$; nL$,8-
(DL",!, 7L",.0$; DL",/, 7L$,0!!; DL",., 7L$,/-$; DL$,", 7L0,$"")
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
D (m) ",!" ",/" ",." $,""
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
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8,< <,/8 ","0 $!,/0 $<,/! 0!,/<
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/8
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
/," <,<$ ","0 $8,"$ 0",$/ 08,18
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$$,0 0/,!" ","! !","" 81,-0 /-,81
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
//
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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$$,! 0-,$! ","8 !$,$1 88,0! /<,!1
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$0,1 1",8. ","8 !/,1! /0,0! -.,01
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$/,1 !-,8. ","- -0,$" </,.1 $0$,-0
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/-
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
$/,8 !.,8" ","- -1,8" <.,-" $0!,"-
$/,/ !.,<- ","- -!,0" <<,/8 $08,08
$/,- !<,!1 ","- -!,<" $"",8< $0/,!!
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
/.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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08,/ </,// ",$" $!/,!- $</,-$ 0!-,0/
08,- <-,0/ ",$" $!-,1- $<-,<0 0!.,-.
08,. <-,.8 ",$" $!.,0- $<<,$1 08",1"
08,< <.,!8 ",$" $!<,$. 0"",1! 08$,.1
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
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Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
0-," $"8,"< ",$$ $8<,0! 0$1,./ 0/.,.0
0-,$ $"8,-" ",$$ $/",$- 0$8,$" 0-",1.
0-,0 $"/,10 ",$$ $/$,$" 0$/,18 0-$,<8
0-,1 $"/,<1 ",$$ $/0,"1 0$-,/" 0-1,80
0-,! $"-,88 ",$$ $/0,</ 0$.,.8 0-8,$"
0-,8 $".,$/ ",$$ $/1,<" 00",$$ 0-/,/.
0-,/ $".,-. ",$$ $/!,.! 00$,1- 0-.,0/
0-,- $"<,!" ",$$ $/8,-- 000,/1 0-<,.!
0-,. $$","0 ",$$ $//,-$ 001,.< 0.$,!1
0-,< $$",/! ",$$ $/-,// 008,$/ 0.1,"0
0.," $$$,0- ",$$ $/.,/" 00/,!1 0.!,/$
0.,$ $$$,.< ",$$ $/<,88 00-,-" 0./,0$
0.,0 $$0,80 ",$$ $-",8" 00.,<- 0.-,.$
0.,1 $$1,$8 ",$$ $-$,!8 01",08 0.<,!0
0.,! $$1,-- ",$$ $-0,!" 01$,80 0<$,"0
0.,8 $$!,!" ",$$ $-1,18 010,.$ 0<0,/1
0.,/ $$8,"1 ",$$ $-!,1$ 01!,"< 0<!,08
0.,- $$8,/- ",$$ $-8,0- 018,1. 0<8,.-
0.,. $$/,1" ",$0 $-/,01 01/,// 0<-,!<
0.,< $$/,<1 ",$0 $--,$< 01-,</ 0<<,$$
0<," $$-,8- ",$0 $-.,$8 01<,08 1"",-!
0<,$ $$.,0$ ",$0 $-<,$0 0!",88 1"0,1/
0<,0 $$.,.8 ",$0 $.",". 0!$,.8 1"!,""
0<,1 $$<,!. ",$0 $.$,"8 0!1,$8 1"8,/1
0<,! $0",$1 ",$0 $.0,"0 0!!,!8 1"-,0-
0<,8 $0",-- ",$0 $.1,"" 0!8,-/ 1".,<0
0<,/ $0$,!$ ",$0 $.1,<- 0!-,"- 1$",8/
0<,- $00,"/ ",$0 $.!,<8 0!.,1. 1$0,0$
0<,. $00,-" ",$0 $.8,<1 0!<,/< 1$1,./
0<,< $01,18 ",$0 $./,<$ 08$,"$ 1$8,80
1"," $0!,"" ",$0 $.-,.< 080,11 1$-,$.
1",$ $0!,/8 ",$0 $..,.- 081,/8 1$.,.!
1",0 $08,1" ",$0 $.<,./ 08!,<- 10",8"
1",1 $08,<8 ",$0 $<",.8 08/,1" 100,$-
1",! $0/,/" ",$0 $<$,.! 08-,/1 101,.!
1",8 $0-,0/ ",$0 $<0,.1 08.,</ 108,8$
A (m) 0,8" 0,8" 0,8" 0,8"
D (m) ",!" ",/" ",." $,""
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
1",/ $0-,<$ ",$0 $<1,.0 0/",1" 10-,$<
1",- $0.,8- ",$0 $<!,.0 0/$,/1 10.,.-
1",. $0<,01 ",$0 $<8,.0 0/0,<- 11",8/
1",< $0<,.< ",$0 $</,.0 0/!,1$ 110,0!
1$," $1",88 ",$0 $<-,.0 0/8,// 111,<1
1$,$ $1$,0$ ",$0 $<.,.0 0/-,"$ 118,/0
1$,0 $1$,.- ",$0 $<<,.0 0/.,18 11-,10
1$,1 $10,8! ",$1 0"",.1 0/<,-$ 11<,"0
1$,! $11,0" ",$1 0"$,.! 0-$,"/ 1!",-0
1$,8 $11,.- ",$1 0"0,.8 0-0,!0 1!0,!1
1$,/ $1!,8! ",$1 0"1,./ 0-1,-. 1!!,$1
1$,- $18,0$ ",$1 0"!,.- 0-8,$! 1!8,.8
1$,. $18,.. ",$1 0"8,.< 0-/,8" 1!-,8/
1$,< $1/,88 ",$1 0"/,<$ 0--,.- 1!<,0.
10," $1-,00 ",$1 0"-,<1 0-<,0! 18$,""
10,$ $1-,.< ",$1 0".,<8 0.",/$ 180,-0
10,0 $1.,8- ",$1 0"<,<- 0.$,<. 18!,!8
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-"
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
10,1 $1<,0! ",$1 0$$,"" 0.1,1/ 18/,$.
10,! $1<,<0 ",$1 0$0,"0 0.!,-! 18-,<$
10,8 $!",/" ",$1 0$1,"8 0./,$0 18<,/8
10,/ $!$,0. ",$1 0$!,". 0.-,8" 1/$,1<
10,- $!$,</ ",$1 0$8,$$ 0..,.< 1/1,$1
10,. $!0,/! ",$1 0$/,$8 0<",0- 1/!,.-
10,< $!1,11 ",$1 0$-,$. 0<$,// 1//,/0
11," $!!,"$ ",$1 0$.,00 0<1,"/ 1/.,1-
11,$ $!!,-" ",$1 0$<,0/ 0<!,!8 1-",$1
11,0 $!8,1. ",$1 00",1" 0<8,.8 1-$,..
11,1 $!/,"- ",$1 00$,1! 0<-,08 1-1,/!
11,! $!/,-/ ",$1 000,1< 0<.,/8 1-8,!$
11,8 $!-,!8 ",$1 001,!1 1"","/ 1--,$-
11,/ $!.,$! ",$1 00!,!. 1"$,!- 1-.,<!
11,- $!.,.! ",$1 008,81 1"0,.. 1.",-$
11,. $!<,81 ",$! 00/,8. 1"!,0< 1.0,!<
11,< $8",01 ",$! 00-,/1 1"8,-" 1.!,0-
1!," $8",<0 ",$! 00.,/< 1"-,$0 1./,"8
1!,$ $8$,/0 ",$! 00<,-8 1".,8! 1.-,.1
1!,0 $80,10 ",$! 01",.$ 1"<,</ 1.<,/0
1!,1 $81,"0 ",$! 01$,.- 1$$,1< 1<$,!$
1!,! $81,-0 ",$! 010,<1 1$0,.$ 1<1,0"
1!,8 $8!,!0 ",$! 011,<< 1$!,0! 1<8,""
1!,/ $88,$0 ",$! 018,"/ 1$8,/- 1</,."
1!,- $88,.1 ",$! 01/,$0 1$-,$$ 1<.,/"
1!,. $8/,81 ",$! 01-,$< 1$.,8! !"",!"
1!,< $8-,0! ",$! 01.,0/ 1$<,<. !"0,0$
18," $8-,<8 ",$! 01<,1! 10$,!0 !"!,"0
18,$ $8.,// ",$! 0!",!$ 100,./ !"8,.!
18,0 $8<,1- ",$! 0!$,!< 10!,1$ !"-,/8
18,1 $/",". ",$! 0!0,8- 108,-/ !"<,!-
18,! $/",-< ",$! 0!1,/8 10-,0$ !$$,1"
18,8 $/$,8$ ",$! 0!!,-1 10.,// !$1,$0
A (m) 0,8" 0,8" 0,8" 0,8"
D (m) ",!" ",/" ",." $,""
9a (cm) K (lt)det) 9a)A K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
18,/ $/0,00 ",$! 0!8,.$ 11",$$ !$!,<8
18,- $/0,<! ",$! 0!/,<" 11$,8- !$/,-.
18,. $/1,/8 ",$! 0!-,<. 111,"1 !$.,/0
18,< $/!,1- ",$! 0!<,"- 11!,!< !0",!8
1/," $/8,"< ",$! 08",$/ 118,</ !00,0<
1/,$ $/8,.$ ",$! 08$,08 11-,!0 !0!,$!
1/,0 $//,81 ",$! 080,18 11.,.< !08,<.
1/,1 $/-,0/ ",$8 081,!! 1!",1/ !0-,.1
1/,! $/-,<. ",$8 08!,8! 1!$,.1 !0<,/.
1/,8 $/.,-$ ",$8 088,/! 1!1,1$ !1$,8!
1/,/ $/<,!1 ",$8 08/,-! 1!!,-< !11,!"
1/,- $-",$/ ",$8 08-,.! 1!/,0- !18,0/
1/,. $-",.< ",$8 08.,<! 1!-,-8 !1-,$0
1/,< $-$,/0 ",$8 0/","8 1!<,0! !1.,<<
1-," $-0,18 ",$8 0/$,$/ 18",-0 !!",./
1-,$ $-1,". ",$8 0/0,0- 180,0$ !!0,-1
1-,0 $-1,.$ ",$8 0/1,1. 181,-" !!!,/"
1-,1 $-!,88 ",$8 0/!,!< 188,0" !!/,!.
1-,! $-8,0. ",$8 0/8,/" 18/,/< !!.,1/
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
1-,8 $-/,"0 ",$8 0//,-0 18.,$< !8",0!
1-,/ $-/,-/ ",$8 0/-,.! 18<,/< !80,$1
1-,- $--,8" ",$8 0/.,</ 1/$,0" !8!,"0
1-,. $-.,01 ",$8 0-",". 1/0,-" !88,<$
1-,< $-.,<. ",$8 0-$,0" 1/!,0$ !8-,.$
1.," $-<,-0 ",$8 0-0,10 1/8,-0 !8<,-$
1.,$ $.",!/ ",$8 0-1,!8 1/-,01 !/$,/$
1.,0 $.$,0$ ",$8 0-!,8. 1/.,-! !/1,8$
1.,1 $.$,<8 ",$8 0-8,-$ 1-",0/ !/8,!0
1.,! $.0,-" ",$8 0-/,.! 1-$,-. !/-,11
1.,8 $.1,!! ",$8 0--,<- 1-1,1" !/<,0!
1.,/ $.!,$< ",$8 0-<,$" 1-!,.1 !-$,$8
1.,- $.!,<! ",$8 0.",0! 1-/,18 !-1,"-
1.,. $.8,/< ",$/ 0.$,1. 1--,.. !-!,<<
1.,< $./,!8 ",$/ 0.0,80 1-<,!$ !-/,<$
1<," $.-,0" ",$/ 0.1,// 1.",<! !-.,.!
1<,$ $.-,<8 ",$/ 0.!,." 1.0,!. !.",--
1<,0 $..,-$ ",$/ 0.8,<8 1.!,"$ !.0,-"
1<,1 $.<,!/ ",$/ 0.-,"< 1.8,88 !.!,/!
1<,! $<",00 ",$/ 0..,0! 1.-,"< !./,8-
1<,8 $<",<. ",$/ 0.<,1< 1..,/! !..,8$
1<,/ $<$,-! ",$/ 0<",8! 1<",$. !<",!/
1<,- $<0,8" ",$/ 0<$,/< 1<$,-1 !<0,!"
1<,. $<1,0/ ",$/ 0<0,.8 1<1,0. !<!,18
1<,< $<!,"1 ",$/ 0<!,"" 1<!,.1 !</,1"
!"," $<!,-< ",$/ 0<8,$/ 1</,1< !<.,0/
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-0
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Ambang lebar (broad crested weir)
,4
mbang lebar yang sering digunakan di :ndonesia adalah ambang lebar'datar' hidung
bundar (round-nose horiontal broad-crested weir), 5entuk ambang bagian depan
ujung atasnya dibundarkan dengan radius tertentu. 5entuk bagian hilirnya dapat
berbentuk &ertikal dan membentuk slope. 5angunan ukur ini dapat dipakai pada
saluran dimana headloss kecil walaupun memerlukan kondisi aliran bebas (free-flow).
3ersamaan debitnya pada kondisi free flow adalah sebagai berikut,
8 , $
- , $ % b ' = ...)0.<)
K debit (m
1
)det; b lebar ambang (m); 9 tinggi muka air dari ambang di bagian hulu
(m).
liran moduler dipenuhi jika 9
0
)9
$
? ",<, untuk itu diperlukan penyesuaian 9
$
)p
0
seperti pada ,ambar 0.$/. 5atas modular menentukan rasio 9
$
)p
0
seperti pada
,ambar 0.$/.
5eberapa keuntungan dari alat ukur ini adalah: (a) Sederhana dan cukup kuat; (b)
berfungsi dengan head loss cukup kecil, (c) kotoran)sampah akan mudah melewati
alat ini, (d) pengukuran debit mudah (hanya satu lokasi ukur), (e) kondisi modular
flow dapat sampai dengan ",<. %erugiannya adalah: (a) memerlukan kondisi aliran
bebas, (b) tidak ada pengatur debit
7ontoh 3rosedur design
lat ukur ambang lebar akan dipasang di sadap pintu tersier dengan luas petak tersier
8" ha, debit maksimum pada waktu pengolahan tanah 0 liter)detik)ha. 4adi debit
maksimum yang akan masuk ke petak tersier adalah $"" liter)detik.
Tabel 0... 3erhitungan dimensi ambang lebar
3erhitungan 2ebit mbang Aebar
;ound'nose broad'crested weir
;umus K L $,- b 9
$,8
","8 ?L 9$)A?L ",8
A S $,-8 9 ma=
b S ",1 m
@ 9
$
ma=
@ A)8
r S ",0 9
$
ma=
9
$
)p L 1,"
p S ",$8 m
Aokasi pengukuran 9$ 0'1 kali 9
$
ma=
3erhitungan 2esign 2imensi lat +kur 2ebit mbang Aebar
Tahapan
$ Tentukan 2ebit ma= Ginal 2esign
real (ha) 8"
%ep. ir 6a= (l)det)ha) 0
$.
Sumber: 5os, 6.,. ed. , $<-.. 2ischarge 6easurement Structure. :A;:, Dageningen, The
Betherlands, pp $0$'$08; dan nkum 3., $<... :rrigation Structures for Dater ;egulation and
6easurement. Aecture Bote.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
2ebit ma= (l)det) $""
0 Aebar (b) (m) ",! ",!
9
$
ma= (m) ",0. ",0.
1 5atas 6odular (9
0
)9
$
) ",.
Aihat ,br. 0.$/
5entuk 2ownstream *ertical 5ack Space
Sloping 5ack Space 5
3ilih 5entuk d)s
9
$
)p
0
",8" ,br. 0.$/
p
0
(m) S ",8/ ",/"
;adius hidung (r) (m) S ","/ ",$"
A (m) S ",!< ",8"
A)8 ",$" ",$"
!
u)s weir block 3engukuran 9
$
(m) ",.! $,""
9
$
)p R 1," $,./
p (m) ","< ",$8
;adius Sayap ; (m) S ",8/ ",/"
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-!
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar 0.$!. Skhema aliran pada bangunan ukur ambang lebar
,ambar 0.$8. 5angunan
ukur ambang lebar
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-8
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
,ambar
0.$/.
9ubungan
antara batas
moduler
dengan
tinggi
ambang hilir
(p
0
)
+inal Design
Tinggi ambang (sill) p bagian hulu L ",$8 m; tinggi ambang (sill) bagian hilir p
0
L
",/" m; 3anjang ambang A L ",8" m; Aebar ambang b L ",! m; ;adius hidung
ambang r L ",$" m; ;adius Sayap ; L",/" m; Aokasi pengukuran 9
$
L $," m; (le&asi
muka air di hulu 9
$
> p L ",0. > ",$8 L ",!1 m.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-/
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Tabel 0.<. 2aftar debit ambang lebar untuk berbagai lebar ambang b
b (m) ",1" ",!" ",8" ",/" ",-" ",." ",<" $,""
9 (cm) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
$ ",8$ ",/. ",.8 $,"0 $,$< $,1/ $,81 $,-"
0 $,!! $,<0 0,!" 0,.. 1,1- 1,.8 !,11 !,.$
1 0,/8 1,81 !,!0 8,1" /,$. -,"- -,<8 .,.1
! !,". 8,!! /,." .,$/ <,80 $",.. $0,0! $1,/"
8 8,-" -,/" <,8" $$,!" $1,1" $8,0$ $-,$$ $<,"$
/ -,8" <,<< $0,!< $!,<< $-,!< $<,<< 00,!< 0!,<.
- <,!8 $0,8< $8,-! $.,.< 00,"! 08,$< 0.,1! 1$,!.
. $$,8! $8,1< $<,01 01,". 0/,<1 1",-- 1!,/0 1.,!-
< $1,-- $.,1/ 00,<8 0-,8! 10,$1 1/,-0 !$,1$ !8,<"
$" $/,$1 0$,8" 0/,.. 10,0/ 1-,/1 !1,"$ !.,1. 81,-/
$$ $.,/$ 0!,.$ 1$,"$ 1-,0$ !1,!$ !<,/0 88,.0 /0,"0
$0 0$,0" 0.,0- 18,11 !0,!" !<,!- 8/,81 /1,/" -",/-
$1 01,<" 1$,.- 1<,.! !-,.$ 88,-. /1,-8 -$,-$ -<,/.
$! 0/,-0 18,/0 !!,81 81,!1 /0,1! -$,0! .",$8 .<,"8
$8 0<,/1 1<,8" !<,1. 8<,0/ /<,$1 -<,"$ ..,.. <.,-/
$/ 10,/! !1,80 8!,!" /8,0. -/,$/ .-,"! <-,<0 $".,."
$- 18,-8 !-,// 8<,8. -$,!< .1,!$ <8,11 $"-,0! $$<,$/
$. 1.,<8 8$,<1 /!,<$ --,.< <",.. $"1,./ $$/,.! $0<,.0
$< !0,0! 8/,10 -",!" .!,!. <.,88 $$0,/1 $0/,-$ $!",-<
0" !8,/0 /",.0 -/,"1 <$,01 $"/,!! $0$,/! $1/,.8 $80,"8
0$ !<,". /8,!! .$,." <.,$/ $$!,80 $1",.. $!-,0! $/1,/"
00 80,/1 -",$- .-,-$ $"8,08 $00,." $!",1! $8-,.. $-8,!0
01 8/,0/ -8,"$ <1,-/ $$0,8$ $1$,0/ $8","$ $/.,-- $.-,80
0! 8<,</ -<,<8 <<,<! $$<,<1 $1<,<$ $8<,<" $-<,.< $<<,..
08 /1,-8 .8,"" $"/,08 $0-,8" $!.,-8 $-","" $<$,08 0$0,8"
0/ /-,/$ <",$8 $$0,/< $18,01 $8-,-/ $.",1" 0"0,.! 008,1.
0- -$,88 <8,!" $$<,08 $!1,$" $//,<8 $<",." 0$!,/8 01.,8"
0. -8,8/ $"",-8 $08,<! $8$,$1 $-/,1$ 0"$,8" 00/,/< 08$,..
0< -<,/8 $"/,0" $10,-! $8<,0< $.8,.! 0$0,1< 01.,<! 0/8,!<
1" .1,." $$$,-! $1<,/- $/-,/" $<8,8! 001,!- 08$,!" 0-<,1!
1$ ..,"1 $$-,1- $!/,-$ $-/,"8 0"8,1< 01!,-! 0/!,". 0<1,!0
10 <0,10 $01,"< $81,.- $.!,/! 0$8,!$ 0!/,$< 0-/,</ 1"-,-1
11 </,/. $0.,<$ $/$,$1 $<1,1/ 008,8< 08-,.0 0<","! 100,0-
1! $"$,$$ $1!,.$ $/.,8$ 0"0,00 018,<0 0/<,/0 1"1,11 11-,"1
18 $"8,/" $!",." $-/,"" 0$$,0" 0!/,!" 0.$,/$ 1$/,.$ 180,"$
1/ $$",$/ $!/,.. $.1,/" 00",10 08-,"! 0<1,-/ 11",!. 1/-,0"
1- $$!,-. $81,"! $<$,1" 00<,8/ 0/-,.0 1"/,". 1!!,18 1.0,/$
1. $$<,!- $8<,0< $<<,$$ 01.,<1 0-.,-8 1$.,8. 18.,!" 1<.,00
1< $0!,0$ $/8,/0 0"-,"0 0!.,!1 0.<,.1 11$,01 1-0,/! !$!,"!
!" $0<,"0 $-0,"1 0$8,"1 08.,"! 1"$,"8 1!!,"/ 1.-,"/ !1","-
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
--
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
b (m) $,$" $,0" $,1" $,!" $,8" $,/" $,-" $,." $,<" 0,""
9 (cm) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
$ $,.- 0,"! 0,0$ 0,1. 0,88 0,-0 0,.< 1,"/ 1,01 1,!"
0 8,0< 8,-- /,08 /,-1 -,0$ -,/< .,$- .,/8 <,$! <,/0
1 <,-0 $",/" $$,!. $0,1- $1,08 $!,$1 $8,"0 $8,<" $/,-. $-,/-
! $!,</ $/,10 $-,/. $<,"! 0",!" 0$,-/ 01,$0 0!,!. 08,.! 0-,0"
8 0",<$ 00,.$ 0!,-$ 0/,/$ 0.,8$ 1",!$ 10,1$ 1!,0$ 1/,$$ 1.,"$
/ 0-,!. 0<,<. 10,!. 1!,<. 1-,!. 1<,<. !0,!- !!,<- !-,!- !<,<-
- 1!,/1 1-,-. !",<1 !!,". !-,01 8",1. 81,80 8/,/- 8<,.0 /0,<-
. !0,1$ !/,$/ 8","$ 81,.8 8-,-" /$,88 /8,1< /<,0! -1,"< -/,<1
< 8",!< 88,". 8<,/- /!,0/ /.,.8 -1,!! -.,"1 .0,/0 .-,0$ <$,."
$" 8<,$1 /!,8$ /<,.< -8,0/ .",/! ./,"$ <$,1< </,-- $"0,$! $"-,80
$$ /.,00 -!,!1 .",/1 ./,.1 <1,"1 <<,01 $"8,!! $$$,/! $$-,.! $0!,"!
$0 --,-1 .!,." <$,.- <.,<1 $"/,"" $$1,"- $0",$! $0-,0" $1!,0- $!$,1!
$1 .-,/8 <8,/0 $"1,8< $$$,8/ $$<,80 $0-,!< $18,!/ $!1,!1 $8$,!" $8<,1-
$! <-,</ $"/,./ $$8,-- $0!,/- $11,8. $!0,!. $8$,1< $/",0< $/<,0" $-.,$"
$8 $".,/! $$.,8$ $0.,1< $1.,0- $!.,$! $8.,"0 $/-,.< $--,-- $.-,/8 $<-,80
$/ $$<,/. $1",8/ $!$,!! $80,10 $/1,0" $-!,". $.!,</ $<8,.! 0"/,-0 0$-,/"
$- $1$,"- $!0,<< $8!,<$ $//,.0 $-.,-! $<",/8 0"0,8- 0$!,!. 00/,!" 01.,10
$. $!0,.$ $88,-< $/.,-- $.$,-8 $<!,-! 0"-,-0 00",-" 011,/. 0!/,/- 08<,/8
$< $8!,.- $/.,<8 $.1,"1 $<-,$$ 0$$,$< 008,0- 01<,18 081,!1 0/-,8$ 0.$,8.
0" $/-,0/ $.0,!/ $<-,/- 0$0,.- 00.,". 0!1,0. 08.,!< 0-1,/< 0..,<" 1"!,$$
0$ $-<,</ $</,10 0$0,/. 00<,"! 0!8,!" 0/$,-/ 0-.,$0 0<!,!. 1$",.! 10-,0"
00 $<0,</ 0$",8$ 00.,"8 0!8,8< 0/1,$1 0.",/- 0<.,00 1$8,-/ 111,1" 18",.!
01 0"/,0- 008,"0 0!1,-- 0/0,80 0.$,0. 1"","1 1$.,-. 11-,81 18/,0. 1-8,"1
0! 0$<,.- 01<,.8 08<,.! 0-<,.1 0<<,.0 1$<,.$ 11<,-< 18<,-. 1-<,-- 1<<,-/
08 011,-8 088,"" 0-/,08 0<-,8" 1$.,-8 1!","" 1/$,08 1.0,8" !"1,-8 !08,""
0/ 0!-,<$ 0-",!8 0<0,<< 1$8,81 11.,"/ 1/",/" 1.1,$! !"8,/. !0.,00 !8",-8
0- 0/0,18 0./,0" 1$","8 111,<" 18-,-/ 1.$,/$ !"8,!/ !0<,1$ !81,$/ !--,"$
0. 0--,"/ 1"0,08 10-,!! 180,/1 1--,.$ !"1,"" !0.,$< !81,1. !-.,8/ 8"1,-8
0< 0<0,"! 1$.,8< 1!8,$! 1-$,/. 1<.,01 !0!,-. !8$,11 !--,.. 8"!,!1 81",<.
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-.
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
-<
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
b (m) 0,$" 0,0" 0,1" 0,!" 0,8" 0,/" 0,-" 0,." 0,<" 1,""
9 (cm) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det) K (lt)det)
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
."
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
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Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
.$
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Penutup
Pertanyaan5
($) 4elaskan beberapa istilah dalam efisiensi irigasi
(0) 5agaimana konsep efisiensi irigasi dalam suatu jaringan irigasi
(1) +saha apa yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi irigasi dan siapa lembaga yang
paling berperan
(!) Terangkan beberapa cara pengukuran debit di saluran terbuka
(8) Terangkan metoda kecepatan aliran dan luas penampang
(/) Sebutkan beberapa bangunan ukur yang biasa digunakan di jaringan irigasi.
(-) 5agaimana cara perhitungannya
(.) pa keunggulan dan kelemahan dari masing'masing bangunan ukur tersebut
(<) (Bilai $") 9asil pengukuran debit dengan sekat ukur Thompson dan 7ipolletti
(lebar ambang $," m) di saluran dan saluran 5, masing'masing menunjukkan 9
L $8 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit (liter)detik) di saluran dan 5J
($")9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L ",8 ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, Gree flow, Tabel -'.: K L .<,/ lt)det)
($$)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L ",8 ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Ksubmergence
L -$,! lt)det)
($0)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L $," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L $-$,1
lt)det)
($1)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L $," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
$-$,1 lt)det, Kkoreksi L $8,! lt)det, K submergence L $88,< lt)det)
($!)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 0," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L 1!8,0
lt)det)
($8)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 0," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
1!8,0 lt)det, Kkoreksi L 0-,- lt)det, K submergence L 1$-,8 lt)det)
($/)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 1," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L 80",$
lt)det)
($-)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 1," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
80",$ lt)det, Kkoreksi L 1-," lt)det, K submergence L !.1,$ lt)det)
($.)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L !," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
.0
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L /<8,-
lt)det)
($<)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L !," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
/<8,- lt)det, Kkoreksi L !-,- lt)det, K submergence L /!.," lt)det)
(0")9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 8," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L .-$,.
lt)det)
(0$)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 8," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
.-$,. lt)det, Kkoreksi L 8-," lt)det, K submergence L .$!,. lt)det)
(00)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L /," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 0" cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 6awab: 9b)9a L 8"#, free flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L $."!.
lt)det)
(01)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L /," ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 10 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence flow, Tabel -'.: Kfree flow L
$."!. lt)det, Kkoreksi L //,0 lt)det, K submergence L <.$,. lt)det)
(0!)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 0 ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !8 cm dan nilai 9b L 0- cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L /"#, Gree flow, Tabel -'.: K L !$!,1 lt)det)
(08)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L 0 ft, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !8 cm dan nilai 9b L 1/ cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik). 4awab: 9b)9a L ."#, submergence, 2iagram koreksi ,br -'$-:
untuk DL$ ft, K koreksi L ",- cfs L $<,/ lt)det; untuk DL0ft, K koreksi L $,. =
$<,/ L 18,1 lt)det. Tabel -'.'0: K free flow L !$!,1 lt)det); 2ebit submergence L
!$!,1 P 18,1 lt)det L 1-< lt)det)
(0/)9asil pengukuran debit dengan 3arshal Glume ukuran D L / inchi, menghasilkan
nilai 9a L !" cm dan nilai 9b L 18,0 cm. 5erapa besarnya debit yang mengalir
(liter)detik) (4awab: 9b)9a L ..#, submergence, 9a L !" cm; ,ambar -'$8: K L
/$ lt)det)
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
.1
Topik 4. Efisiensi irigasi dan pengukuran debit
Daftar Pustaka
$. 2itjen. 3engairan ;epublik :ndonesia, $<./. Standard 3erencanaan :rigasi :
%riteria 3erencanaan 5agian Saluran, %3'"1. 7.*. ,alang 3ersada. 5andung
0. 5os, 6.,. ed. , $<-.. 2ischarge 6easurement Structure. :A;:, Dageningen, The
Betherlands, pp $0$'$08;
1. nkum 3., $<... :rrigation Structures for Dater ;egulation and 6easurement.
Aecture Bote.
!. %raatH,2.5.; :.%. 6ahajan, $<-8. Small 9ydraulic Structures. :rrigation and
2rainage 3aper no 0/. GC, ;ome.
8. 5os, 6.,. and Bugteren, 4., $<.0. Cn :rrigation (fficiencies. :nternational :nsti'
tute for Aand ;eclamation and :mpro&ement, :A;: 3ublication Bo $<, Dagenin'
gen, The Betherlands.
enarai
Teknik Irigasi dan Drainase
.!

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