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Kesetimbangan Ion

Kesetimbangan Ion

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Published by Anwar Ld
Kesetimbangan Ion
Kesetimbangan Ion

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Published by: Anwar Ld on Apr 12, 2013
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05/20/2014

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Kesetimbangan ion

Senyawa paling banyak diproduksi
• • • • Sulfuric acid = H2SO4 = Asam sulfat Hydrochloric acid = HCl = Asam Klorida Nitric acid = HNO3 = Asam Nitrat Sodium Hydroxide = NaOH = Basa Natrium hidroksida • Calcium hydroxide = Ca(OH)2 = Basa Kalsium hidroksida • Ammonia = NH3 = bakal Basa NH4OH

Indikator
• • • • • Vinegar (cuka) = bersifat asam Lemon juice (air jeruk) = bersifat asam Air teh = cenderung basa Sari jeruk mengubah sifat basa air teh Buktinya warna air teh dari coklat menjadi kuning

• Senyawa spt dalam teh yang bisa berubah dari coklat menjadi kuning, ketika terjadi perubahan ke-asam/basa-an, bisa disebut sebagai indikator • Indikator menjadi penanda bahwa telah terjadi perubahan kimia dalam larutan • Indikator sintetis: phenolphtalein, methylene blue, bromokresol, dll.

Contoh asam yang populer • Cuka = larutan yang mengandung acetic acid = CH3COOH = HC2H3O2 = asam cuka .

+ H+ • Asam + Logam  Garam + Hidrogen • CH3COOH + Mg  (CH3COO)2Mg + H2 • Sifat mampu melepaskan Hidrogen ini yang mendasari sifat asam • Asam mengubah kertas litmus menjadi merah .Sifat Asam • Dalam air melepaskan ion H+ • CH3COOH  CH3COO.

Citric acid = Asam Sitrat • Air jeruk = larutan mengandung citric acid = H3C6H5O7= asam sitrat .

Sifat Basa • Dalam air melepaskan ion OH• NaOH  Na+ + OH- • Basa + Asam  Garam + Air • NaOH + CH3COOH  CH3COONa + H2O .

+ H3O+ . • Th 1887 Svante Arrhenius (Bapak teori ionisasi): atom H berhubungan dengan sifat keasaman.+ H+ (dalam H2O) • CH3COOH  CH3COO. Asam = donor H+ • HCl  Cl.Teori awal Asam Basa • Tahun 1800-an awal: tiap molekul asam mengandung minimal satu atom H.+ H+ • CH3COOH  CH3COO.

Listrik Walau Terlarut CH3COOH maupun HCl Pelarut = Benzene = C6H6  Nonelectrolyte .

5 M CH3COOH Asam Lemah Pelarut = Air Larutan ion dalam air = electrolyte .Listrik Terlarut 0.

5 M HCl Asam Kuat Pelarut = Air Larutan ion dalam air = electrolyte .Listrik Terlarut 0.

Asam sbg elektrolit • HCl Cl.+ H+ • HCl dalam H2O (air) = strong electrolyte • CH3COOH CH3COO.+ H+ • CH3COOH dalam H2O (air) = weak electrolyte • HCl dalam C6H6 (benzene) = non electrolyte .

Basa sebagai elektrolit • NaOH Na+ + OH• NaOH dalam H2O (air) = strong electrolyte • NH4OH NH4+ + OH• NH4OH dalam H2O (air) = weak electrolyte • NH4OH dalam C6H6 (benzene) = non electrolyte .

Lowry (1923): Asam = pemberi proton Basa = penerima proton . Lewis (1916): Asam  mendapatkan muatan – Basa  mendapatkan muatan + • Johannes N.Konsep Asam dan Basa • Svante Arrhenius (1887): Asam = pemberi H+ Basa = penerima H+ • Gilbert N. Bronsted & Thomas M.

• • • • • Arrhenius: HCl asam Lewis:  HCl juga asam Bronsted & Lowry: HCl = juga asam Yang berbeda alasannya Saling melengkapi .

Konstanta Ionisasi : Asam (Ka) dan Basa (Kb) • HCl  H+ + Cl- [H+] [Cl-] Ka = [HCl]  107 >102 • Maka HCl digolongkan Strong Acid (asam kuat) .

+ H+ [CH3COO.8 x 10-5 10-8 < Ka CH3COOH < 10-3 • Maka CH3COOH digolongkan Weak Acid (asam lemah) .] [H+ ] Ka = [CH3COOH ] = 1.Ka Asam Lemah • CH3COOH  CH3COO.

Strong Acid (Ka > 102) • • • • • • Perchloric acid = HClO4 Sulfuric acid = H2SO4 Iodide acid = Hydrogen Iodide = HI Bromide acid = Hydrogen Bromide = HBr Chloride acid = Hydrogen Chloride = HCl Nitric acid = HNO3 .

H2SO3 .Weak Acid (10-8 < Ka < 10-3) • • • • • Acetic acid = CH3C00H Carbonic acid = H2CO3 Hydrogen Sulfide = H2S Nitrous acid = HNO2 H3PO4 .

Oksidasi Acid Hypochlorous Chlorous Chloric Perchloric Formula HClO HClO2 HClO3 HClO4 Oxidation Ka Number 1+ 3+ 5+ 7+ 5 x 10-8 1 x 10-2 1 x 1010 1 x 1011 Catatan: Ka HCl  107 .Ka Meningkat seiring Bil.

Ka Air • H2O  H+ + OH- [H+] [OH.] Ka = [H2O] = 1 x 10-14 Pada [H2O]=1 mole/L.]= 1 x 10-14 mole/L Karena [H+] = [OH-] maka [H+] [OH-] = [H+] [H+] = [H+]2 Jadi [H+]2 = 1 x 10-14 dan [H+] =  (1 x 10-14) = 1 x 10-7 dipermudah penulisannya: .log 1 x 10-7 = .log 10-7 = -(7) = 7 Maka pH air murni = 7 . Didapatkan [H+] [OH.

Selanjutnya Ka (a=acid) Air menjadi Kw (w=water) Kw = Kw = [H+] [OH.] = 10-14 [H+] [H+ ] = 10-14 [H+ ]2 = 10-14 = 10-7 [H+ ] pH = -Log[H+ ] pH air = -Log(10-7) = 7 Kesetimbangan ion-ion dalam larutan didasarkan pada Kw air ini .

...... pH = 7 Jika [H+] < [OH-].. • ada juga ion H+ maupun OH• • • • • • Jika [H+] > [OH-]....pH=7. sifat basa..  pH < 7 Jika [H+] = [OH-].............Ka Air  Kw • Air murni terurai sebagian  H+ maupun OH• Dalam suatu larutan ------dengan pelarut air..Basa ...pH=14 Asam..............................  pH > 7 Range pH pH=1..Netral...... sifat asam........... sifat netral....

log [H+] • Problem: • Suatu larutan.pH (Power of Hydrogen) • pH = . diukur dg alat pH-meter ternyata pH-nya = 5 • Jika larutan diencerkan 10 x menjadi 2000 mL. berapa pH-nya sekarang? . volume 200 mL.

log [H+] • 5 = .pH (Power of Hydrogen) • pH = .(log 10-5) • Jadi [H+] = 10-5 mole/Liter .log [H+] • 5 = .(-5) • 5 = .

 • [H+] menjadi 10-5 x 10-1 mole/Liter  • = 10-6 mole/Liter • pH sekarang = .(log 10-6) = -(-6) = 6 • Pengenceran membuat pH mendekati netral .• Diencerkan 10 x.

Asam Kuat diasumsikan terdisosiasi sepenuhnya menjadi ion-ion.pH Asam Kuat • Berapa pH dari larutan 0.01 M HCl? • HCl  H+ + Cl• Dalam air.01 mole/L = 10-2 mole/L • pH = -Log(10-2) = -(-2) = 2 . maka: • [H+] = [HCl] = 0.

01 M NaOH? • NaOH  Na+ + OH- • Dalam air. Basa Kuat diasumsikan terdisosiasi sepenuhnya menjadi ion-ion.01 mole/L = 10-2 mole/L .pH Basa Kuat • Berapa pH dari larutan 0. maka: • [OH-] = [NaH] = 0.

• Rumus kesetimbangan ion dalam air: • Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 10-14 • [H+] (10-2) = 10-14 • [H+] = 10-14/(10-2) = 10-12 • pH = -Log(10-12) = -(-12) = 12 .

8 – 3.4 2.2 – 2.6 6.pH beberapa zat Nama Zat Gastric juice (cairan lambung) Lemons (bangsa Jeruk) Vinegar (Cuka) Wine (Anggur) Apples Oranges (bangsa Jeruk) Beer pH 1 – 3 (Sangat asam) 2.3 – 7.5 (netral) 7.5 12 (Sangat basa) .3 – 6.5 – 7.4 – 3.4 (Sangat asam) 2.3 3-4 4-5 Urine (air kencing) Water saturated with CO2 (bangsa minuman Sprite) Cow’s milk (susu sapi) Saliva (Air liur) Blood (darah) Household ammonia (NH4OH) 5-8 6 6.9 – 3.8 2.

75 x 10-5 .+ H+ • (0.1-y) y y Ka = [CH3COO-] [H+ ] [CH3COOH] = 1.1 M.pH Asam Lemah • Acetic acid CH3COOH memiliki Ka 1.75 x 10-5 • Jika konsentrasinya 0. berapa pHnya? • CH3COOH CH3COO.

1-y) dianggap = (0. maka (0.75 x 10-6 .1 – y) = 1.Ka = (y) (y) (0.1 – y) (y2) (0.1-0) = 0.75 x 10-5 Karena diasumsikan y sangat kecil.1 sehingga y2 = 1.75 x 10-5 = 1.

75½ +3 +3 = -Log1.y = (1.322875656 .751/2 x 10-6/2) -Log (y) = -Log(1.75) ½ pH pH + (-Log10-6/2) = -Log1.751/2 x 10-6/2) -Log (y) = -Log1.75 x 10-6) 1/2 y = (1.

0.Log1.pH pH pH pH = .121519024 + 3 = .9 .0.1 + 3 = 2.322876 +3 = .

berapa pHnya? NH4OH NH4+ + OH(0.65 x 10-10 Jika konsentrasinya 0.2 M.2-y) y y Kb = [NH4+ ] [OH.65 x 10-10 .] [NH4OH] = 5.pH Basa Lemah • • • • Ammonia NH4OH memiliki Kb 5.

0) = 0. maka (0.65 x 10-10 Karena diasumsikan y sangat kecil.2 – y) = 5.Kb = (y) (y) (0.2 .2 .65 x 10-10 (y2) (0.2 sehingga y2 = (5.y) dianggap = (0.2 .2 – y) = 5.65 x 10-10) 0.

13 x 10-10)1/2 = (1.13 1/2) x (10-5) = 1. maka y = [OH-] [OH-] = 1.063014581 x 10-5 .y2 y = (1.063014581 x 10-5 y y Karena NH4OH =Basa.13 x 10-10) = (1.

] = 10-14 10-14 [OH.063014581) x 10-14-(-5) .Kw = [H+] = [H+] [OH.] 10-14 1.063014581 x 10-5 [H+] = [H+] = (1/1.

[H+] = (0.940720869) x 10-9) .

026539221) = +0.Log(10-9) = .(-0.940720869) .0 +9 .Log(0.pH pH pH pH = .0 + 9 = 9.

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