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Hots Sains

Hots Sains

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BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

2012

Pada akhir sesi ini, guru dapat:
• menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains,

• pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)

Sesi taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen:
1) Penerangan & Perbincangan 2) Perbengkelan

Creativity & Innovation

Communication

Information Literacy

CRITICAL SKILLS

Collaboration

Problem Solving

Responsible Citizenship

Apakah LOTs dalam Sains? .

.Resnick (1987) Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge to familiar situations and contexts.

It DOES NOT require the student to work outside the familiar” .Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact. or solve a familiar type of problem. perform a simple operation .

applying algorithms already familiar to the student. .Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while working in familiar situations and contexts. or.

Beckman.Senk. and where only a single correct answer is possible tasks where the solution requires applying a w e l l . & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving justification. or proof required.k n o w n a l g o r i t h m . often with NO . explanation.

Apakah HOTs dalam Sains? .

task instruction.” HOT Stein and Lane (1996) describe as “the use of complex.” . non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is NOT a predictable. well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task. or a worked out example.Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as “nonalgorithmic.

. et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no algorithm has been taught.Senk. and where more than one solution possible. may be Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT involves solving tasks where an algorithm has not been taught or using known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations. where justification or explanation are required.

analyze. and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts.“Higher-order” questions promote learning because these types of questions require students to apply. synthesize. .

konsep dan teori kepada komponen) Applying . produk atau cara baharu) Evaluating . products or ways of viewing things (menjana idea. concepts and theories into component parts (mengenalpasti corak dan menggelas maklumat.using information in another familiar situation (menggunakan maklumat dalam satu situasi lain) Understanding .justifying a decision or action (mewajarkan keputusan atau tindakan) Analising – seeing patterns and classifying information.recalling information (mengingat kembali maklumat) .explaining ideas or concepts (menerangkan idea atau konsep) Remembering .Creating .generating of new ideas.

• Penggunaan kata kerja seperti membuat inferens. • Walau bagaimanapun LOTs dalam HP/SP seperti ‘menerangkan…’ juga boleh di capai melalui aktiviti HOTs Kata Kerja Proses . mewajarkan. menaakul dalam HP/SP bermaksud ia memerlukan HOTs. • Secara amnya HOTs adalah dari aplikasi ke atas.

MENGAPA HOTs dalam SAINS? .

reason. If we want students to develop the capacity to think. cognitively complex tasks. kreatif dan inovatif bagi memenuhi cabaran abad ke-21 agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia.Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas. Stein & Lane 1996 . and problem solve then we need to start with high-level.

. menyelesaikan masalah dan menilai serta mencipta • Belajar mewajarkan penyelesaian dan penemuan • Konsep sains boleh dipelajari dengan berkesan melalui HOTs.• Berubah daripada amalan hafalan kepada pemahaman yang mendalam. • Penyiasatan saintifik memerlukan HOTs. • Meningkatkan tahap kesedaran dengan menganalisa.

Bagaimana meningkatkan penguasaan HOTs dalam kalangan murid dalam Sains? .

• berfikir • menyoal bagi mencungkil idea murid • Memotivasi murid • menekankan aktiviti hands-on • mengubah jenis tugasan • mentaksir untuk pembelajaran • berkomunikasi secara berkesan .

. kreatif dan inovatif 1. memimpin. 4. Mempelbagaikan strategi. 22 2.Menggalakkan pemikiran kritis. terbuka serta menggalakkan penaakulan serta berfikir pada aras tinggi. bertanya dan memberi pendapat. Memastikan setiap murid melibatkan diri secara aktif dalam PdP. 3. Memberi peluang murid berbincang. Mengemukakan soalan membina.

Inkuiri dalam Sains .

. • Inkuiri berlaku apabila terdapat kaitan antara konsep sains dengan soalan yang murid kemukakan dan mereka mencari jawapan melalui penyiasatan.• Murid belajar konsep sains berdasarkan penemuan yang mereka sendiri peroleh.

• Belajar dengan berkesan melalui aktiviti hands on dan berasaskan inkuiri. • Seronok menyelesaikan masalah yang bermakna • Memberi respon kepada soalan yang bermakna • Belajar lebih baik melalui galakan berbanding hukuman • Melihat dunia dari kaca mata mereka • Memahami idea berkembang secara berperingkat dan berurutan Murid: .

. persoalan atau dilema. Penyoalan HOTs KPS/KBSB Belajar secara hands-on menghasilkan kefahaman yang mendalam untuk membolehkan mereka mengaplikasikannya dalam situasi yang Inkuiri baru.Murid teruja apabila diberikan masalah luar dari kebiasaan. ketidakpastian.

Contoh Soalan TIMSS .

TIMSS is assessing student learning in particular topics. • What should the student know? ( what knowledge does this item allow a student to show? ) • What should the student be able to do? (What cognitive processes does this item require a student to demonstrate?) .

.

.

Soalan LOTs and HOTs .

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan 2 blok di dalam 1000 cm3 air dan jadual di bawah menunjukkan ketumpatan bahan X dan Y Jadual Rajah Bahan Isipadu (cm3) Jisim (g) Ketumpatan (g/cm3) Bongkah X Bongkah Y Air 8 8 1000 2 16 1000 0.25 2 1 .

Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0.1. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 3. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 2.8g/cm3. LOTS LOTS LOTS HOTS 5. 4. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air. HOTS .

Ketumpatan X kurang tumpat daripada air HOTS 5. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air. Bongkah X timbul manakala bongkah Y tenggelam LOTS 4. Bongkah Z akan berada di tengah antara bongkah X dan bongkah Y HOTS . Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 2 (g/cm3) LOTS LOTS 3.25 (g/cm3) 2. Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0.8g/cm3. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air.1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 0.

Meningkatkan kemahiran menaakul. Operasi yang perlu digunakan adalah jelas. • • • • • • • • Memerlukan tahap pemikiran pada aras tinggi. Menggalakkan lebih daripada satu cara penyelesaian dan strategi. Menggalakkan perbincangan dalam kumpulan dalan mendapatkan penyelesaian. .SOALAN LOTs VS. Jawapan dan prosedur yang perlu digunakan tidak serta merta jelas. Berupaya membentuk murid yang kreatif dan inovatif Memerlukan masa yang mencukupi untuk diselesaikan. Terdapat lebih daripada satu jawapan. HOTs SOALAN LOTs SOALAN HOTs • • Tidak memerlukan murid untuk menggunakan kemahiran berfikir pada aras tinggi.

Apakah tahap soalan ini? .

In living things. What is this process called? A B C D Excretion Absorption Digestion Circulation Domain: Knowing . large and complex molecules are broken down into small and simple molecules.#1.

#2. Explain how soil is formed. Domain: Knowing .

. Explain how soil is formed.#2.

The colour of an object such as an apple is the same as the colour of the light waves A.#3. that travel through the object that are absorbed by the object that are reflected by the object that travel around the object Domain: Applying . B. D. C.

What could have been the reason why one of his friends did NOT catch influenza? Domain: Applying . He played a game with two friends. One of his friends caught influenza but the other did not.#4. Keith had influenza.

.

describe the steps used by Sarah to separate the salt from the mixture of salt. Step Description of step Reasons for carrying out the step 1 2 3 4 Domain: Reasoning .Sarah fell off her bicycle and spilled the bag of salt she was carrying. The first step has been done for you. sand and leaves. State a reason for doing each step. In the table below. She collected the salt off the ground together with the sand and tree leaves and put the mixture in a plastic bag.

.

Contoh Soalan PISA .

.

................. ................................................Give one reason why it is recommended that young children and old people..................................... ....................... .................................. ...... should be vaccinated against influenza (flu)............................................................. .. in particular................................................................

or similar. • So they don’t get the flu. Scoring Comment: The reason(s) given must refer to young or old people in particular – not to everyone in general. • They need help to fight the flu. • If they get the flu the effects are worse in these people. No Credit Code 0: Other responses. • These people have less resistance to getting sick. the response must indicate. • Old people get sick more easily. • The young and old can’t fight off disease as easily as others. • They are weaker.Full Credit Code 1: Responses referring to young and/or old people having weaker immune systems than other people. . • Because organisms of young children and older people are weaker. that these people have weaker immune systems than other people– not just that they are generally “weaker”. directly or indirectly. Also. • They are more likely to catch the flu.

.Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang diberikan. Bentangkan.

5. Soalan dan skema pemarkahan Gerak Gempur akan disediakan secara berpusat dan pelaporan disediakan. Guru Sains dan Matematik Tingkatan 1 perlu mula menyediakan murid untuk Gerak Gempur HOTsSM pada Jun dan Oktober 2013 dan 2014 untuk persediaan murid ke TIMSS 2014 dan PISA 2015. 4. 2.1. Adakan taklimat dalaman di sekolah masing-masing kepada semua guru Sains dan Matematik. Gunakan aturcara dan tempoh masa taklimat seperti yang diterima. . Semua guru Sains & Matematik menggunakan soalan HOTS dalam pdp. 3.

Terima Kasih .

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