MATERI 3.

VIABILITAS DAN VIGOR BENIH
I.

PENDAHULUAN

Viabilitas adalah kemampuan benih atau daya hidup benih untuk tumbuh secara normal
pada kondisi optimum. Kondisi optimum yang dimaksud adalah kondisi yang sesuai kebutuhan
tanaman untuk mendukung proses perkecambahan. Uji viabilitas benih dilakukan dengan
beberapa metode, yaitu uji kertas digulung (UKD), uji antar kertas (UAK), dan uji diatas kertas
(UDK). Kertas substrat yang dapat digunakan untuk uji ini adalah kertas buram, kertas merang,
dan kertas stensil. Kriteria kecambah pada uji viabilitas adalah kecambah normal, abnormal,
benih mati,benih segar tidak tumbuh, dan benih keras.
Vigor benih adalah kemampuan benih untuk dapat tumbuh secara normal pada kondisi
suboptimum. Kondisi suboptimum adalah kondisi yang tidak mendukung dan menghambat
perkecambahan benih. Uji vigor dilakukan dengan menanam benih pada media tanam berupa
pasir, kerikil, pecahan batu bata, tanah, kompos, dll. Kriteria kecambah pada uji vigor dibagi
menjadi vigor, less vigor, non vigor/abnormal, dan death (mati). Selanjutnya pada uji ini
dilakukan perhitungan persentase daya tumbuh benih dari keseluruhan benih yang ditanam pada
media dengan kondisi suboptimum.
II.

TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM

Tujuan dari praktikum viabilitas dan vigor benih ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan mengamati
gejala pertumbuhan pada benih.
III.

BAHAN DAN METODE

A. Viabilitas Benih
Alat :

Bahan :

- Cawan

- Benih Tanaman

- Sprayer

- Kertas buram

- Pinset

- Kertas merang

- Gunting

- Plastik

- Germinator

- Air

- Kertas label

Air - Kamera . Abnormal (Ab)  Cacat : akar pendek (salah satu bagian kecambah hilang)  Rusak : ada struktur/bagian tanaman yang hilang/tidak ada. Untuk benih besar : tanaman pangan seperti jagung.Alat tulis B. Uji Kertas Digulung (UKD). Uji Antar Kertas (UAK)  untuk benih besar dan kecil : tanaman pangan dan sayuran (cabai. media kertas yang digunakan dilapisi plastik diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri. semangka.  Uji Kertas Digulung dimiringkan (UKDm).. jika diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi tidur. b. Normal (N) tumbuh sempurna dan lengkap.Kamera .dll) c. Uji Diatas Kertas (UDK)  untuk benih kecil : sayuran : bayam dan wijen Kriteria kecambah pada uji viabilitas : a. sehat b. e. Vigor Benih Alat : Bahan : - Bak pasir .Pasir - Alat tulis - sprayer Metode Uji Viabilitas a. jika media kertas yang digunakan digulung dan diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri.  Uji Kertas Digulung didirikan ((UKDd).  Uji Ketas Digulung didirikan dalam plastik (UKDdp).Benih Tanaman - Penggaris .g kotiledon/ perakaran putus  Busuk : akibat serangan/kontaminasi hama dan penyakit  Lambat : pertumbuhan kecambah tidak normal (kerdil) dan lebih lambat pada akhir pengamatan .

batang lemas d. Death  kecambah mati atau tidak tumbuh Rumus uji vigor . Benih Mati  kecambah mati d. Non vigor/ abnormal  tumbuh lemah. Vigor  kecambah tumbuh kuat (segar) b. Less vigor  tumbuh kurang kuat dan lambat c. Benih Keras  dormansi : tidak mengalami imbibisi karena kulit keras Kriteria kecambah pada uji vigor : a.c. tidak tumbuh plumula (mengalami imbibisi) e. Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh  benih mengembang.

UJI VIABILITAS Uji Antar Kertas (UAK) (2 ulangan) Kertas buram 4 lembar (2 alas. 2 tutup) Dibuat lingkaran dan dibasahi Letakkan benih pada kertas Dimasukkan di dalam cawan Dokumentasi Tumpuk Amati 7 hst - Uji Diatas Kertas (UDK) (2 ulangan) Kertas buram dan kertas merang 4 lembar Dibuat kotak Dilembabkan dibagi dua Tanam benih .METODE PRAKTIKUM A.

Dokumentasi Amati 7 hst(disiram tiap hari) - UKDdp (2 ulangan) Kertas buram 2 lembar alas dilapisi plastic bawahnya 2 lembar tutup Dilembabkan Tanam benih Dokumentasi Digulung  dimasukkan dalam plastik Germinator Amati 7 hst .

B. UJI VIGOR Bak pasir. isi dengan pasir hitam Lembabkan Tanam benih sebanyak 20 benih Amati selama 5 hari Dokumentasi Hitung % Daya Tumbuh .

HASIL PENGAMATAN 4. Benih Baru Parameter Pengamatan Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK) .IV. Uji Viabilitas UAK 1. Benih Baru Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK) 2. Benih Expired Parameter Pengamatan Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK) UDK 1.1 HASIL A.

. ............................................................................................................. Benih Expired Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 % Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK) UKDdp 1........................2.................................. Benih Expired Parameter Pengamatan Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK)  Perhitungan persentase perkecambahan ................................... ............................................................ ............................................................. Benih Baru Parameter Pengamatan Normal (N) Abnormal (Ab) Benih Mati (BM) Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT) Benih Keras (BK) 2..........................................................................................................

................................................. ......................................... ............................. .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................. ..................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................... ............................................................................................. B........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Uji Vigor Parameter Pengamatan Vigor Less-vigor Non-Vigor/abnormal Benih Mati (tidak tumbuh)  DOKUMENTASI Kedalaman 2 cm 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm .................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................ ... .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4.............................................2 PEMBAHASAN 4.................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................. ..................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................ .................................................................. ........................................................................ ............................................................................ ................................................................................................................................. ........................ .........1................................................................................................................................... .... .....1 Uji Viabilitas 4...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ..........................................1 Benih Baru ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ............................... .................................2................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................2.....................................................................................................................................................................................2 Benih Expired .........................1................................................................................ ..... ............4.............................................................................................................. .............

..................................................... . ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................ ........................... ............................................. .... ............................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................1....................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ .............................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................................... 4................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................3 Perbandingan Perlakuan UDK antara Media Kertas Buram dan Kertas Merang ............. ............................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .......................................................................... ............................. .... ......................................................................................................................2.................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................................................... 4..............................................................2 Uji Vigor .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................ ............. ...................... ..................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................. ...................................... ........................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................... ............................................................. .. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .............................................................. .... ............ ...................... ...............................................................................................................

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