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MATERI 3

MATERI 3

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MATERI 3.

VIABILITAS DAN VIGOR BENIH
I. PENDAHULUAN
Viabilitas adalah kemampuan benih atau daya hidup benih untuk tumbuh secara normal
pada kondisi optimum. Kondisi optimum yang dimaksud adalah kondisi yang sesuai kebutuhan
tanaman untuk mendukung proses perkecambahan. Uji viabilitas benih dilakukan dengan
beberapa metode, yaitu uji kertas digulung (UKD), uji antar kertas (UAK), dan uji diatas kertas
(UDK). Kertas substrat yang dapat digunakan untuk uji ini adalah kertas buram, kertas merang,
dan kertas stensil. Kriteria kecambah pada uji viabilitas adalah kecambah normal, abnormal,
benih mati,benih segar tidak tumbuh, dan benih keras.
Vigor benih adalah kemampuan benih untuk dapat tumbuh secara normal pada kondisi
suboptimum. Kondisi suboptimum adalah kondisi yang tidak mendukung dan menghambat
perkecambahan benih. Uji vigor dilakukan dengan menanam benih pada media tanam berupa
pasir, kerikil, pecahan batu bata, tanah, kompos, dll. Kriteria kecambah pada uji vigor dibagi
menjadi vigor, less vigor, non vigor/abnormal, dan death (mati). Selanjutnya pada uji ini
dilakukan perhitungan persentase daya tumbuh benih dari keseluruhan benih yang ditanam pada
media dengan kondisi suboptimum.
II. TUJUAN PRAKTIKUM
Tujuan dari praktikum viabilitas dan vigor benih ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan mengamati
gejala pertumbuhan pada benih.
III. BAHAN DAN METODE
A. Viabilitas Benih
Alat : Bahan :
- Cawan - Benih Tanaman
- Sprayer - Kertas buram
- Pinset - Kertas merang
- Gunting - Plastik
- Germinator - Air
- Kertas label
- Kamera
- Alat tulis
B. Vigor Benih
Alat : Bahan :
- Bak pasir - Benih Tanaman
- Penggaris - Air
- Kamera - Pasir
- Alat tulis
- sprayer
Metode Uji Viabilitas
a. Uji Kertas Digulung (UKD), Untuk benih besar : tanaman pangan seperti jagung.
 Uji Kertas Digulung didirikan ((UKDd), jika media kertas yang digunakan
digulung dan diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri.
 Uji Ketas Digulung didirikan dalam plastik (UKDdp), media kertas yang
digunakan dilapisi plastik diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri.
 Uji Kertas Digulung dimiringkan (UKDm), jika diletakkan dalam germinator
dengan posisi tidur.
b. Uji Antar Kertas (UAK)  untuk benih besar dan kecil : tanaman pangan dan sayuran
(cabai, semangka,dll)
c. Uji Diatas Kertas (UDK)  untuk benih kecil : sayuran : bayam dan wijen
Kriteria kecambah pada uji viabilitas :
a. Normal (N) tumbuh sempurna dan lengkap, sehat
b. Abnormal (Ab)
 Cacat : akar pendek (salah satu bagian kecambah hilang)
 Rusak : ada struktur/bagian tanaman yang hilang/tidak ada, e.g kotiledon/ perakaran
putus
 Busuk : akibat serangan/kontaminasi hama dan penyakit
 Lambat : pertumbuhan kecambah tidak normal (kerdil) dan lebih lambat pada akhir
pengamatan
c. Benih Mati  kecambah mati
d. Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh  benih mengembang, tidak tumbuh plumula (mengalami
imbibisi)
e. Benih Keras  dormansi : tidak mengalami imbibisi karena kulit keras



Kriteria kecambah pada uji vigor :
a. Vigor  kecambah tumbuh kuat (segar)
b. Less vigor  tumbuh kurang kuat dan lambat
c. Non vigor/ abnormal  tumbuh lemah, batang lemas
d. Death  kecambah mati atau tidak tumbuh

Rumus uji vigor









METODE PRAKTIKUM

A. UJI VIABILITAS
Uji Antar Kertas (UAK) (2 ulangan)
Kertas buram

4 lembar (2 alas, 2 tutup)

Dibuat lingkaran dan dibasahi

Letakkan benih pada kertas

Dimasukkan di dalam cawan

Dokumentasi

Tumpuk

Amati 7 hst

- Uji Diatas Kertas (UDK) (2 ulangan)
Kertas buram dan kertas merang

4 lembar

Dibuat kotak

Dilembabkan dibagi dua

Tanam benih

Dokumentasi

Amati 7 hst(disiram tiap hari)

- UKDdp (2 ulangan)
Kertas buram

2 lembar alas dilapisi plastic bawahnya
2 lembar tutup

Dilembabkan

Tanam benih

Dokumentasi

Digulung  dimasukkan dalam plastik

Germinator

Amati 7 hst











B. UJI VIGOR
Bak pasir, isi dengan pasir hitam

Lembabkan

Tanam benih sebanyak 20 benih



Amati selama 5 hari

Dokumentasi

Hitung % Daya Tumbuh
















IV. HASIL PENGAMATAN

4.1 HASIL

A. Uji Viabilitas
UAK
1. Benih Baru
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)

2. Benih Expired
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)

UDK
1. Benih Baru
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)

2. Benih Expired
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)
UKDdp
1. Benih Baru
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)

2. Benih Expired
Parameter Pengamatan Ulangan 1 % Ulangan 2 %
Normal (N)
Abnormal (Ab)
Benih Mati (BM)
Benih Segar Tidak Tumbuh (BSTT)
Benih Keras (BK)

 Perhitungan persentase perkecambahan
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B. Uji Vigor
Parameter Pengamatan
Kedalaman
2 cm 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm
Vigor
Less-vigor
Non-Vigor/abnormal
Benih Mati (tidak tumbuh)

 DOKUMENTASI










4.2 PEMBAHASAN
4.2.1 Uji Viabilitas
4.2.1.1 Benih Baru

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4.2.1.2 Benih Expired
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4.2.1.3 Perbandingan Perlakuan UDK antara Media Kertas Buram dan Kertas Merang
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4.2.2 Uji Vigor
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V. KESIMPULAN
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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jika diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi tidur. Untuk benih besar : tanaman pangan seperti jagung.  Uji Ketas Digulung didirikan dalam plastik (UKDdp). jika media kertas yang digunakan digulung dan diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri. e. semangka.  Uji Kertas Digulung didirikan ((UKDd). Uji Diatas Kertas (UDK)  untuk benih kecil : sayuran : bayam dan wijen Kriteria kecambah pada uji viabilitas : a. Uji Antar Kertas (UAK)  untuk benih besar dan kecil : tanaman pangan dan sayuran (cabai. Abnormal (Ab)     Cacat : akar pendek (salah satu bagian kecambah hilang) Rusak : ada struktur/bagian tanaman yang hilang/tidak ada. sehat b. Vigor Benih Alat : Bak pasir Penggaris Kamera Alat tulis sprayer Bahan : . media kertas yang digunakan dilapisi plastik diletakkan dalam germinator dengan posisi berdiri.Benih Tanaman .Pasir Metode Uji Viabilitas a.dll) c..Kamera . Normal (N) tumbuh sempurna dan lengkap.g kotiledon/ perakaran putus Busuk : akibat serangan/kontaminasi hama dan penyakit Lambat : pertumbuhan kecambah tidak normal (kerdil) dan lebih lambat pada akhir pengamatan .Alat tulis B.  Uji Kertas Digulung dimiringkan (UKDm). b. Uji Kertas Digulung (UKD).Air .

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