PENGGUNAAN ALAT UKUR DASAR

I. TUJUAN
1. Mampu menggunakan alat ukur yang digunakan dalam praktikum Fisika.
2. Mengenal besar ketelitian pengukuran dari alat-alat ukur dasar.
3. Mengenal apa yang dimaksud dengan skala nonius.
II. ALAT DAN BAHAN
1. Batangan besi
2. Kelereng
3. Pengaris

4 . Jangka sorong
5. Mikrometer Skrup

III. TEORI RINGKAS
Nonius

Banyak alat ukur dilengkapi dengan nonius. Alat bantu ini membuat alat ukur
berkemampuan lebih besar, karena jarak antara dua garis skala bertetangga seolah-olah
menjadi lebih kecil. Biasanya pembagiuan skala utama dan nonius adalah :

9 bagian skala ukur – 10 bagian skala nonius
Selanjutnya marilah kita lihat hasil pengukuran lain dengan alat bantu nonius
tersebut seperti yang ditunjukkan pad gambar. Skala 0 pada nonius tidak berimpit dengan
salah satu angka pada skala alat ukur, melainkan terletak antara kedudukan 8.4 dan 8.5.
Dalam pengukuran ini kita yakin bahwa harga X yang diukur adalah lebih besar dari 8.4 tetapi
lebih kecil dari 8.5. Berapakah harga X emnurut hasil pembacaan ini ? Cobalah anda
perhatikan Gambar 2 lebih teliti lagi. Ternyata salah satu garis skala nonius yang berimpit
dengan skala alat ukur yaitu skala ke-6 dari skala nonius. Dalam keadaan pengukuran semacam
ini menunjukkan bahwa harga X yang diukur adalah 8.46.
2. Jangka Sorong
1. Jangka sorong merupakan suatu alat pengukuran yang cepat dan relatif teliti untuk
mengukur diameter dalam, luar dan dalam suatu tabung, yang memiliki bentuk seperti gambar
1 di bawah ini.

Gambar 1. Jangka Sorong
3. Mikrometer Sekrup
Mikrometer Sekrup dipergunakan untuk mengukur panjang benda yang memiliki
ukuran maksimum 2,50 cm, dan bentuk mikrometer sekrup ditunjukkan pada gambar 2. Alat
ukur ini mempunyai batang pengukur yang terdiri atas skala dalam milimeter, dan juga sekrup
berskala satu putaran sekrup besarnya sama dengan 0.5 mm dan 0.5 mm pada skala utama
dibagi menjadi 100 skala kecil yang terdapat pada sekrup.

Gambar 2. Mikrometer Sekrup

IV.

PROSEDUR PERCOBAAN

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V. Data Percobaan dan Perhitungan
a. Jangka Sorong
_
No
X
X2
∆X Xo ± ∆ X
x
1

a. Mikrometer Sekrup
_
No
X
X2
x
1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

∆X Xo ± ∆ X

VI. Kesimpulan
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