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PARADIGMA KEPERAWATAN

PARADIGMA KEPERAWATAN

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03/18/2014

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PARADIGMA KEPERAWATAN

KELOMPOK MAWAR
AMIR SYAM
EDY WURYANTO
HAPSAH
NIA RESTIANA
WARDIYAH DAULAY
ROSAMAY E LANGITAN

Defenisi paradigma
Menurut Thomas Kuhn (1962) ah!a "ara#$%ma #$#e&en$s$'an
sea%a$ 'um"u(an "en)a"a$an 'onse"*'onse"+ n$(a$*n$(a$+ )ara*
)ara ,an% #$%una'an untu' mem"ero(eh so(us$ atau
"eme)ahan terha#a" masa(ah*masa(ah ,an% #$ha#a"$-
Menurut Mar$ner (19.9)+ "ara#$%ma meru"a'an #$a%ram
'onse"tua( ,an% $sa men%%amar'an stru'tur esar seuah
teor$-
Menurut La O#e /uma#$ (1999) ah!a "ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan
a#a(ah )ara "an#an% ,an% men#asar atau )ara '$ta me($hat+
mem$'$r'an+ memer$ ma'na+ men,$'a"$ #an mem$($h t$n#a'an
terha#a" &enomena ,an% a#a #a(am 'e"era!atan-
Menurut Ko0$er (2111) ah!a "ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan a#a(ah
$ntera's$ antara manuas$a ,an% mener$ma "era!atan+
($n%'un%an tem"at manus$a era#a+ 'esehatan ,an% se(a(u
men2a#$ a%$an #ar$ $#an% 'e"era!atan serta t$n#a'an
'e"era!atan-

Perbedaan mendasar dari berbagai asumsi
enang paradigma !epera"aan
Para#$%ma 'e"era!atan mem$($'$ em"at
'onse" utama ,a$tu manus$a+ ($n%'un%an+
'esehatan #an 'e"era!atan- Para "a'ar
mem$($'$ "ara#$%ma ,an% ere#a*e#a
tentan% em"at 'onse" terseut-
Pere#aan men#asar #ar$ "ara#$%ma
"ara "a'ar terseut ,a$tu 3

MAN45IA
Ma#e(e$ne Le$n$n%er meman#an% ah!a manus$a a#a(ah ma'h(u'
,an% )a'a" #an "e#u($ terha#a" oran% (a$n-
6(oren)e N$%ht$n%a(e meman#an% manus$a sea%a$ o2e'
'e"era!atan ,an% #$"en%aruh$ o(eh ($n%'un%an #an mem$($'$
'emam"uan untu' eruah 'e arah ,an% (e$h a$'-
Dorothea E /ohnson meman#an% manus$a sea%a$ s,stem "er$(a'u
,an% erusaha se)ara terus*menerus untu' men,e$man%'an
'ea#aann,a a%ar teta" sta$(-
7a(($sta Ro, meman#an% manus$a sea%a$ s$stem a#a"t$& ,an%
ho($st$'-
Doroth, Orem er"en#a"at ah!a manus$a t$#a' mam"u se)ara
terus menerus mem"ertahan'an self care untu' h$#u" sehat #an
"emu($han #ar$ sa'$t8trauma #an e&e'n,a-

L$n%'un%an
Ma#e(e$ne Le$n$n%er t$#a' memahas ($n%'un%an se)ara
'husus teta"$ han,a men%huun%'ann,a #en%an
'eu#a,aan-
6(oren)e N$%ht$n%a(e mmeman#an% ah!a ($n%'un%an
meru"a'an (an#asan teor$+ #$mana semua ha(+ a$' &$s$'+
"s$'o(o%$s #an sos$a( era#a "a#a ($n%'un%an-
Dorothea E /ohnson 3 ($n%'un%an ter#$r$ #ar$ ($n%'un%an
$nterna( #an ($n%'un%an e'sterna(-
7a(($sta Ro, meman#an% ah!a st$mu(us ,an% erasa( #ar$
$n#$9$#u #an se'$tar en#$9$#u meru"a'an e(emen #ar$
($n%'un%an ,an% #a"at mem"en%aruh$ "er'eman%an #an
"er$(a'u $n#$9$#u atau 'e(om"o'-
Doroth, Orem meman#an% ah!a tatanan #$mana '($en
t$#a' #a"at memenuh$ 'eutuhan self care #an "era!at
termasu' #$ #a(amn,a teta"$ t$#a' s"es$&$'

Kesehatan
Ma#e(e$ne Le$n$n%er meman#an% 'esehatan sea%a$ suatu
'ea#aan se2ahtera #$mana seseoran% mam"u me(a'u'an "erann,a
set$a" har$-
6(oren)e N$%ht$n%a(e er"en#a"at ah!a 'esehatan &$s$'
#$se$man%'an #en%an meman&aat'an sumer #a,a ('e'uatan)
manus$a-
Dorothea E /ohnson men%ata'an ah!a 'esehatan meru"a'an
suatu 'on#$s$ atau 'ea#aan ,an% se$man% #an sta$(
7a(($sta Ro, meman#an% 'esehatan sea%a$ suatu 'ea#aan
manus$a se2ahtera se)ara 'ese(uruhan #an utuh ,an% #a"at
#$tun2u''an #en%an 'emam"uan untu' mem"ertahan'an #$r$+
tumuh+ re"ro#u's$ #an un%%u(-
Doroth, Orem er"en#a"at ah!a 'esehatan a#a(ah 'emam"uan
$n#$9$#u atau 'e(om"o' memenuh$ tuntutan #ar$ self care.

Ke"era!atan
Ma#e(e$ne Le$n$n%er 3 5uatu sen$ #an $(mu ,an% mem"e(a2ar$ tentan%
manus$a+ er&o'us "a#a "er$(a'u+ &un%s$+ #an "roses untu' men$n%'at'an
#an men,e$man%'an 'esehatan atau "emu($han #ar$ 'on#$s$ sa'$t
6(oren)e N$%ht$n%a(e 3 Ke"era!atan mem&as$($tas$ "as$en memenuh$
'eutuhann,a se"ert$ 'eers$han #$r$+ "en%aturan #$et+ 'ehan%atan+ u#ara
se%ar #an sea%a$n,a-
Dorothea E /ohnson eran%%a"an ah!a 'e"era!atan meru"a'an
re%u(ator e'sterna( ,an% #$utuh'an o(eh seseoran% ,an% men%a(am$
'et$#a'mam"uan
7a(($sta Ro, men%ata'an ah!a asuhan 'e"era!atan ertu2uan untu'
men$n%'at'an 'esehatan $n#$9$#u #en%an )ara men$n%'at'an res"on
a#a"t$&n,a
Doroth, Orem meman#an% 'e"era!atan meru"a'an "e(a,anan ,an%
#en%an sen%a2a #$"$($h atau 'e%$atan ,an% #$(a'u'an untu' memantu
$n#$9$#u 'e(uar%a #an 'e(om"o' mas,ara'at #a(am mem"ertahan'an self
care ,an% men)a'u" $nte%r$tas stru'tura( &un%s$ #an "er'eman%an-

Hubungan paradigma !epera"aan dan fi#$s$fi !epera"aan
%a(sa&ah 'e"era!atan meru"a'an "an#an%an
tentan% ha'$'at manus$a sea%a$ mah(u' ho($st$'
,an% meru"a'an 'eran%'a #asar a%$ "era!at
#a(am me(a'sana'an "ra'te' 'e"era!atan-
6a(sa&ah 'e"era!atan san%at erhuun%an erat
#en%an "ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan #$mana #a(am
meman#an% #an mem$'$r'an "eme)ahan
masa(ah*masa(ah 'e"era!atan harus er#asar'an
"a#a &a(sa&ah 'e"era!atan seh$n%%a has$(n,a
ah!a "era!at $sa men%am$( 'e"utusan
t$n#a'an 'e"era!atan se)ara "ro&es$ona( untu'
"eme)ahan masa(ah #an "en%eman%an
'e"era!at

Paradigma !epera"aan da#am #a&anan !ese'aan
&ang diberi!an pada pasien

Manus$a a#a(ah "ener$ma asuhan 'e"era!atan ,an% ter#$r$
#ar$ $n#$9$#u+ 'e(uar%a+ 'e(om"o' #an mas,ara'at-
Manus$a #$"an#an% sea%a$ ma'h(u' ,an% ho($st$' serta
mem$($'$ 'emam"uan untu' era#a"tas$ #an memenuh$
'eutuhan #asarn,a a%ar #a"at ertahan h$#u"-
Pera!at "er(u 2u%a mem"ert$man%'an as"e' ($n%'un%an
'arena ($n%'un%an san%at mem"en%eruh$ 'on#$s$
'esehatan seseoran%-
5eseoran% #$'ata'an sehat 2$'a $n#$9$#u terseut era#a
#a(am 'ea#aan #$nam$s a$' &$s$'+ "s$'o(o%$s mau"un sos$a(
untu' men)a"a$ 'ea#aan #$nam$s terseut ma'a
#$"er(u'an "eran "era!at sea%a$ "emer$ "e(a,anan
'esehatan-

(ESIMPULAN
1- Para#$%ma 'e"era!atan sea%a$ 'um"u(an "en)a"a$an
'onse"*'onse"+ n$(a$*n$(a$+ )ara "an#an% ,an% men#asar atau
)ara '$ta me($hat+ mem$'$r'an+ memer$ ma'na+ men,$'a"$ #an
mem$($h t$n#a'an terha#a" &enomena ,an% a#a #a(am
'e"era!atan-
2- Para "a'ar mem$($'$ "an#an%an ,an% ere#a e#a #a(am
men#e&$n$s$'an 'eem"at 'om"onen "ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan-
:- 6a(sa&ah 'e"era!atan san%at erhuun%an erat #en%an
"ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan #$mana #a(am meman#an% #an
mem$'$r'an "eme)ahan masa(ah*masa(ah 'e"era!atan harus
er#asar'an "a#a &a(sa&ah 'e"era!atan seh$n%%a has$(n,a
ah!a "era!at $sa men%am$( 'e"utusan t$n#a'an
'e"era!atan se)ara "ro&es$ona( untu' "eme)ahan masa(ah
#an "en%eman%an 'e"era!atan-
;- Asuhan 'e"era!atan 'e"a#a "as$en+ harus er#asar'an "a#a
"ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan ,an% ter#$r$ #ar$ em"at 'om"onen
utama ,a$tu manus$a+ ($n%'un%an+ 'esehatan #an
'e"era!atan-

SARAN
Da(am memer$'an asuhan
'e"era!atan 'e"a#a "as$en+ "era!at
sea$'n,a er#asar'an "a#a
"ara#$%ma 'e"era!atan ,an% ter#$r$
#ar$ em"at 'om"onen utama ,a$tu
manus$a+ ($n%'un%an+ 'esehatan #an
'e"era!atan-

SELESAI

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