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Alat Bantu Pendengaran

Alat Bantu Pendengaran

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Alat Bantu Pendengaran

(ABD)
W ABD = alat yg paling penting utk
membantu kanak-kanak bermasalah
pendengaran/mrk yg bermasalah
pendengaran
W udah rosak
W Acuan telinga (ear mould) tersumbat,
tidak sesuai saiz
W Bateri
W ayar
W asalah gain
Apa itu ABD?
W Alat elektronik utk bantu mendengar
W $bg sistem pembesar suara
÷ Kompoen mikrofon
÷ Amplifier
÷ 'Loud speaker'
÷ $umber kuasa
W bjektif: menjadikan bunyi yg dikesan oleh
mikrofon diperkuatkan (mengikut
keperluan pengguna) bagi membolehkan
individu yang mempunyai masalah
pendengaran boleh mendengar.
W ikrofon berada pada pemakai, oleh itu
tiada ketentuan jarak antara penutur dan
pendengar.
W Lebih bermanfaat jika berada dlm
situasi yg senyap.
W Bunyi bising/persekitara yg sampai ke
mikrofon akan dikuatkan (spt bunyi
pertuturan, menyebabkan suara
penutur tenggelam/bercampur-aduk
degan bunyi yg tidak dikehendaki itu.
ABD
W Analog
W Digital
Analog Hearing Aids
W Analog hearing instruments amplify the
continuous sound wave by simply
making it larger. There are two
subcategories of analog hearing
instruments: conventional and
programmable.
Digital Hearing Aids
W Digital hearing instruments take the continuous
sound wave and break it up into very small,
discrete bits of information (called digitizing the
signal and all digital hearing instruments do
this).
W The very fact that a hearing device is digital
does not make it better than a comparable
analog device.
W Beyond just digitizing the sound prior to
amplification, there are differences in exactly
how various digital hearing devices amplify or
process sound.
W The more sophisticated digital hearing
instruments are able to amplify the softest
sounds of speech while at the same time
subtracting out certain types of unwanted
noises.
W Digital signal processing allows hearing
instrument designers to write computer
programs, called algorithms that can be
customized to each individual's hearing
loss.
enis-enis ABD
W enis Poket (Pocket Hearing Aids)
÷ Berbentuk kotak kecil dan dipakai di paras
dada.
÷ ikrofon dan amplifier berada dlm kotak.
÷ 'Loud speaker' da sumber kuasa disambung
ke kotak oleh wayar.
÷ ikrofon perpu berada 6 inci dari mulut
pemakai untuk membolehkannya mendengar
suaranya sendiri.
ABD enis Belakang Telinga
[Behind The Ear (BTE)]
W Lebih kecil dari jenis poket.
W $emua komponen terletak dlm satu alat
yang berbentuk melengkung supaya dapat
diletakkan di belakang pina (cuping
telinga)
ABD enis Dalam Telinga
[Ìn The Ear (ÌTE)]
W Alat ini lebih kecil dari PHA dan BTE.
W Dimasukkan dalam salur auditori.
W Kurang popular
Ìn The Canal (ÌTC)
W Ìn-the-canal (ÌTC) aids are smaller still,
with an earmold that fits down into the ear
canal, and a smaller portion facing out into
the outer ear. They are discreet, yet still
visible within the outer ear.
Completely Ìn The Canal (CÌC)
W The newest generation of hearing aids are those
that fit completely in the canal (CÌC). Barely
visible ÷ and then only if someone's peering
into your ear ÷ the only clue to their existence is
the head of a tiny plastic line with which you
place or remove the aid.
W CÌCs are popular for their aesthetic appeal, but
the physiology of some individuals' ears (i.e., a
very narrow canal) may make this style
unsuitable for them.
Cochlear Ìmplant
W Bersaiz kecil
W Berkuasa bateri
W emerlukan pembedahan
W $atu elektrod kecil diletakkan dlm koklea
telinga.
W Elektrod membawa arus elektrik utk
meransang hujung saraf dlm koklea.
How Cochlear Ìmplants orks
W a.$ounds and speech are picked up by the
microphone.
W b.The information from the microphone is
sent to the speech processor.
W c.The speech processor analyses the
information and converts it into an
electrical code.
W d.The coded signal travels via a cable to the
transmitting coil in the headset. Radio waves
from the transmitter coil carry the coded signal
through the skin to the implant inside.
W e.The implant package decodes the signal. The
signal contains information that determines how
much electrical current will be sent to the
different electrodes.
W f.The appropriate amount of electrical current
passes down the lead wires to the chosen
electrodes.
W g.The position of the stimulating
electrodes within the cochlea will
determine the frequency or pitch of the
sounds. The amount of electrical current
will determine the loudness of the sounds.
h. nce the nerve endings in the cochlea
are stimulated, the message is sent up to
the brain along the hearing nerve. The
brain interprets the stimulation as a
meaningful sound.
Bagaimana emaksimumkan
Penggunaan ABD
W Pemakai hendaklah berada dlm
lingkungan 6 kaki daripada sumber bunyi
W Berada dalam persekitaran yg senyap
W Berada dlm posisi melihat/memandang
sumber bunyi (kepada/badan menghadap
sumber bunyi).
W Tahap kebisingan yang minima
Alat-Alat Kawalan Dalam ABD
W $uis 'n/ff¨ ÷ digabungkan dgn
ruang bateri/pengawal suara
W Terdapat juga yg diletakkan
bersama kawalan input.
Kawalan Ìnput
W enentukan jenis signal yg yg
ditranmisikan (disalurkan) kpd amplifier.
W Biasanya ditandakan , T, dan T
÷ = mikrofon
÷ T = telekoil
÷ T = menerima input dari kedua-dua
cara (mikrofon da telekoil)
W Biasa (), T/T digunakan utk b/darjah
yg dilengkapi teleloop
W %00.4
W Telecoils are special options available on
some styles of hearing instruments. A
telecoil helps you hear on the phone much
more easily. Ìt can also be used with
assistive listening devices, such as
amplified telephones and amplified
television listeners.
Kawalan Kekuatan Bunyi
W engawal gain/'volume'
W ain = tambaha kekuata bunyi yg boleh
dihasilka apabila bunyi memalui ABD.
40 dB
ain
30 dB
70 dB
Kawalan nada
W Dapat menukar kekuatan bunyi mengikut nada.
W Biasanya dilabelkan sbg N, H, dan L.
÷ N = normal iaitu mengikut piawai alat
tersebut.
÷ H = bunyi-bunyi nada rendah akan
dikurangkan.
÷ L = bunyi-bunyi nada tinggi aka
dikurangkan kekuatannya.
Langkah-langkah enguji Fungsi
ABD (BTE)
W Periksa acuan telinga
W Periksa wayar yg menghubungkan ABD
dgn acuan telinga
W Periksa kedudukan suis kawalan
Tanda-tanda Kerosakan/Tidak
Betul Pada ABD
W Tidak berlaku pembesaran bunyi dari ABD
W Bunyi ÷ ada, tiada
W Bunyi yg lemah/perlahan
W engeluarkan bunyi selain dari yg
sepaptutnya
W Kualiti bunyi tidak tulen
W engeluarkan bunyi yg berdesing atau
siulan
Faktor-faktor yang empengaruhi
kualiti ABD
W Bunyi Persekitaran
W ema
Bunyi Persekitaran
W Bunyi dlm bilik darjah
W Bunyi dari luar bilik darjah
W Tahap kebisingan yg dpt diterima =
35-45 dB HTL
ema
W Terhasil oleh bunyi yang dipantulkan
oleh permukaan-permukaan keras spt
lantai, dinding, tingkap dan papan
hitam.
W Boleh diatasi (rawatan akustik) dgn
menggunakan langsir, permaidani,
permukaan lembut, ataupun jubin
akustik.
Panduan Umum embeli ABD
W aminan
W Terdapat perkhidmatan pinjaman ABD
semasa tempoh diperbaiki.
W Terdapat perkhidmatan susulan (after
sales services)
Kaedah Komunikasi Untuk
Kanak-Kanak/ urid-urid
Bermasalah Pendengaran
W Terdapat berbagai jenis/kaedah
komunikasi utk mengajar
W Komunikasi $eluruh
W Bahasa Ìsyarat
W Bacaan Bibir
W Pengejaan ari
W Pertuturan Kiu
W ral
Komunikasi $eluruh
(Total Communication)
W Digunakan di sekolah (KTB)
W elibatkan integrasi penyebutan
fonetik, gerak isyarat, bahasa isyarat,
pertuturan, bacaan gerak bibir, dan
ejaan jari.
Bahasa Ìsyarat
W elibatkan pergerakan tangan, jari,
dan mimik muka.
W Kaedah tertua
W Komunikasi manual
Bacaan Bibir
W Proses memahami mesej yg
dituturkan dgn memerhatikan
pergerakan bibir penutur.
Pengejaan ari
W engeja huruf-huruf abjad dgn
menggunakan pelbagai posisi jari
dan tangan.
http://www.asl.ms/()/images2/abcslideshow.htm
Pertuturan Kiu (Cued $peech)
W $atu kaedah membantu bacaan bibir.
W elibatkan ciri-ciri visual bahasa
pertuturan dgn menambah kiu-kiu dalam
bentuk tangan dan meletakkannya dekat
dgn dagu penutur untuk membantu mrk
yg bermasalah pendengaran utk
mengenalpasti bunyi-bunyi yg tidak boleh
dibezakan melalui bacaan bibir.
W Kiu-kiu bukanlah isyarat atau huruf-
huruf abjad serta tidak boleh dibaca dgn
sendirinya.
W enggunakan 8 bentuk tangan utk
membezakan bunyi-bunyi konsonan
dan 4 bentuk bunyi-bunyi vokal.
W Bentuk tangan serta lokasinya yg
tertentu memberikan indikator visual ttg
sesuatu suku kata.
ral
W Auditori-verbal
W Pembelajaran auditori
W enekankan penggunaan teknik-
teknik untuk menggalakkan seseorang
kanak-kanak menggunkaan baki
pendengaran mrk
W Penekanan diberikan kpd
kemahiranmendengar bunyi
pertuturan tanpa membaca
pergerakan bibir.

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