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9 Gaya Dan Torsi

9 Gaya Dan Torsi

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Transduser Berbasis Transduser Berbasis

8train Gauge 8train Gauge
NUR SUBEKÌ
JURUSAN TEKNÌK MESÌN UMM 2010
8ampai mana bahasan kita?: 8ampai mana bahasan kita?:
STRAIN MEASUREMENTS
Gauges in parallel
Gauges in series
Compensating for torsion
Compensating for tension
Compensating for temperature
Considerations
SpeciaI Cases
Measurement of torque
Measurement of force
Measurement of temperature
Resistance Strain Gauge
How do we apply them?
How do we get a signal?
Ìnterpreting strain signals
Wheatstone bridges
ExampIes
Simple tensile member
Case study
Biaxial example
Dynamic example
ow do we measure it?
Why do them?
What is strain
What is stress
Poisson's Ratio
Solid Mechanics
Stress strain link
2 tipe Pembebanan
Beban Normal
Beban Geser
Resultan Deformasi
P
P
P
P
Resultan Deformasi
Kerusakan pada kapur dipuntir
kapur material rapuh
material rapuh memperoleh gaya normal, bukan geser.
Kapan dibebani torsi?
Permukaan patah adalah 45° thd aksis perpatahan rapuh.
Perpatahan mendekati 45° thd aksis silinder dan memiliki ujung
spiral
Permukaan patah adalah 90° thd aksis beban dalam
perpatahan ulet (cth; baja).
Eksperimen:
Regangan dari beban Torsi Regangan dari beban Torsi
: :
3
9
3
9 3
9
3
9
Elemen dibawah
regangan geser
45°
T
T
Elemen tegangan utama
· Max tegangan normal pada
arahnya
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
Elemen dibawah
tegangan geser
Pengukuran Torsi Pengukuran Torsi
0
2,
%#

:
igliola and Besley, Theory and Design for
Mechanical Measurements
Note: Strain gauges mengukur regangan normal
dimana: pengukur ditempel pada
45° thd poros dan mengukur
regangan normal utama
Dimana:
2, 573.5,
: 9
Untuk poros; tegangan geser maksimum ¡
max
berbentuk:
dimana, T = torsi yang diberikan Nm,
J = momen polar inersia, and
R
o
= jejari luar poros
dimana,
T= Torsi dalam Nm
G = Modulus Elastisitas Geser N/m2
ri= jari-jari dalam
ro= jari-jari luar
L =panjang silinder
4 = defleksi angular, radians
v = Poisson's ratio
Defleksi Angular
4 4
( )
2
4
# #
%

6

c c
c
c
4
0
2
#

6 c

Momen ¡nersia Polar J
2(1 )

4

Modulus Geser
{sifat material·
Penggunaan Umum
igliola and Besley, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements Table 11.1 pg447
contoh: poros baja bolong dipasang transduser torsi. Strain gauges
ditempel dalam bentuk jembatan penuh dengan konstanta k = 4 (lihat
tabel 11.1). Radius dalam poros ( Ri) 2.5cm dan luar (Ro) 3.2 cm. Hitung
regangan utama yang terjadi jika menerima torsi of 22.6 Nm. Bagaimana
keluaran jembatan dari torsi ini? Perolehan: E
steel
= 200 GPa, G= 2.0,
v=0.27
Hubungan untuk Pengukuran Daya
Hubungan torsi ke daya
! %
P= daya dalam Watt
W = kecepatan angular radians / second
T= Torsi dalam Nm
Contoh: motor menghasiIkan torsi 90 Nm pada 1200 rpm.
Berapa besar daya dihasiIkan?
Jawab:
1200 2
1200 / sec
60
752 7,/,38
6 c c

! %
125.6 / sec 90 ! 7,/8 2 c
11.3 !
Konversikan rpm ke radian/detik
Masukkan kedalam persamaan daya :
Pengukuran Daya Pengukuran Daya
Hubungan Praktis
· Bagaimana instrumen dipasang pada poros
berputar?
· Untuk perputaran poros yang pelan, kawat
dapat memutari selama pengukuran daya
8lip Rings 8lip Rings
Memperhitungkan sinyal
dan eksitasi yang
ditransmisikan ke poros
berputar
Sikat-sikat membawa
sinyal dan daya diantara
cincin
Kebisingan musti terjadi
Beroperasi hingga 25000
rpm
tahanan diantara kontak
berfluktuasi secara umum
· Jembatan secara lengkap
terpasang pada benda
berputar
Kawat ke
jembatan
Cincin dalam
berputar
Ring luar
stasioner
Kawat ke
instrumen
Transmisi 8inyal Wireless Transmisi 8inyal Wireless
45°
Centre line
Transmiter penyiaran mini dari strain gauges ke unit penerima
· Data dijital mereduksi kebisingan
· jembatan dibangkitkan dari sumber daya pada poros berputa
Battery to power transmitter
and excite bridge
rom Binsfeld Corp.
Metode ¡nductive
Untuk uji jangka panjang
· menggunakan induksi
· daya disuplay kontinyu
tidak menggunakan
batery
Contoh Penerapan
Kasus:
untuk mengukur kegagalan poros propeller pada kondisi tarikan awal pada
operasi berat
Dapat menjelaskan kehandalan desain baru
Tegangan Torsional
:
:
T
T
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
Elemen akibat
tegangan geser
A
Dimulai dengan elemen geser maksimum
2, 0
2,
0
2
2

:
9 :

Kita perlu gaya tarik untuk mengimbangi gaya
geser pada DB dan BC.
Besaran F
Dari komponen gaya geser, kita hitung arah
diperlukan untuk keseimbangan Diagram bendda
bebas;
Tulis tegangan dalam
persamaan nya (=oA)
dibagi oleh luas A kita dapat gambaran tegangan;
2, 0 2, 0
2( ) cos 45 2 : : H
2, 0
: c
B
C
D
2, 0
: c
0
2 70,
B
C
D
luas A
o
Area A
o
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
A
B
C
D
E
Lihat segitiga DBC dengan luasnya
8esuatu diterapkan untukBCE
2, 0
: c
2, 0
: c
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
A
B
C
D
E
B
C
E

Arah F
Kecuali arah kesetimbangan gaya
BCE o = -¡
max
3
9
3
9 3
9
3
9
45°
Mengganti tegangan baIik
Dan melihat pada elemen luasan, kita
tiba pada
Load Cell Balok Geser
Load
Load
45°
3
9
3
9
3
9
3
9
Elemen dalam Geser Murni
Elemen Geser yang terjadi
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
2,
:
A
Testing and kalibrasi Load Cell
Hasil tes Load Cell Balok Geser
Characteristic Specification
Load Type Compression Only
Transfer unction P/s=12.2microstrain/N
Linear range
(approx)
50kg to 350kg
Power Consumption W
Bridge Type Half
Bridge Constant K=2
Temperature
Compensation
Yes
Load Cell Specifications
ExperimentaI and TheoreticaI Stress vs Strain
Trendline Equation
y = 12.246x
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0 100 200 300
Strain (microstrain)
L
o
a
d

(
N
)
Theoretical
Experimental
Linear
(Experimental)
Load Cell Balok Cantilever
Load
Manufactured Load Cells
OMEGA.com
Transduse Tekanan Diafragma
· tekanan bekerja diatas diafragma
· secara khusus strain gauge pada kedua permukaan :
· regangan sirkumferensial ( s
00
)
· regangan radial ( s
rr
)
Circumferential
grid
Radial grid
Profil transduser regangan
diafragma tekanan
Regangan Radial
Regangan Tangensial
Pemasangan jembatan:
·Jembatan penuh
· R1 dan R4 adalah; elemen sirkumferensial
· R2 dan R3 ; elemen radial 1
Kebaikan Transduser Tekanan
Diafragma
Respon frekuensi cukup cepat
· Terjadi hingga frekuensi natural diafragma
yang tinggi
Respon Linear untuk defleksi kecil
Transduser tekanan tersedia secara
komersial
Entran® Low ProfiIe
StainIess SteeI Pressure
Sensor
Bridge Configuration
Mounting Configurations
Example: A mechanical engineering student wishes to determine
the internal pressure existing in a soda can. She mounts a gauge in
the hoop direction on the surface of the can. After wiring the gauge
to a quarter bridge and balancing the bridge, she opens the can and
relieves the internal pressure, the output voltage drops 0.0024V. Ìf
the can is made from aluminum with a thickness of 0.01 in. and a
diameter of 2.25 in. what was the original pressure inside the can?
Given v=0.3, E
i
=12V , G=2 .
Adapted from : Beckwith, Mechanical Measurements, 5th edition. Addison Wesley
Data Acquisition For 8train Gauges
Real time display of measurements
Recording of dynamic info
Multi channel
Etc.
8train Gauge ¡ndicator
Wheatstone bridge primary sensing circuit
A high-gain DC amplifier bridge output
is then used to amplify the
small bridge output signal to a digital voltage
indicator
Ìnstrument also excites bridge with DC
power
built-in bridge completion resistors
Balance and gain controls
Multi Channel 8train ¡ndicator
10 Channel
switched strain
indicator
Specs M22
¡nterbridge 8witching
Entire bridge is
switched in and
out of circuit
¡ntrabridge 8witching
Gauges are
switched in and
out of single
bridge
Multi Gauge Circuits
Digital 8train Gauge Measurement
Cards can provide bridge
completion
Software controls:
· Bridge configuration,
· excitation,
· amplification,
· filtering
Acquisition speeds of 200 kS/s,
16-Bit Resolution
All the benefits of a computer
based data acquisition system
DYNAMOMETER
Prony Brake
Hidraulic Dynamometer
Motor/Generator Dynamometer
Hydraulics Dynamometer
Magna Drive & Northwest Energy
Efficiency Allience
Testing of a 100 hp water-cooled. permanent-magnet. brake system for
automotive and aerospace dynamometer applications.
Pengukuran Torsi lainnya
iskusikan;
Bagaimana cara
mengukurnya? Dan variabel
apa yang dapat diambil dari
percobaan ini?
Tegangan keluar
Rancang:
Jika gambar sebelah ini
adalah motor listrik,
bagaimana cara
memperoleh torsi!!
Tegangan keluar
Rancang:
Jika gambar sebelah ini
adalah generator listrik,
bagaimana cara
memperoleh torsi!!
Tegangan keluar
Rancang:
Jika keduanya digabungkan, apa
yang diperoleh dari pengukuran
??
Kerjakan sesuai keIompok kerja:
Presentasikan minggu depan!!
Lebih Ianjut Iihat di Lab. Teknik
EIektro
8ee you next session

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