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Teori Tektonik Lempeng

Teori Tektonik Lempeng

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Published by: Anjelita Salassa on Jun 07, 2011
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DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL

UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
JURUSAN TEKNIK GEOLOGI
TUGAS KELOMPOK
MATA KULIAH GEOLOGI DINAMIK
OLEH KELOMPOK II :
AL HAJAR (D611 07 014)
ANDI RAHMATULLAH (D611 07 046)
A.M SUHARTO PUTRA (D611 07 047)
AMRITZAL NUR (D611 09 7!)
A"DUL MANAF (D611 09 76)
NUR HIKMAH (D611 09 000)
#AHDANIAH (D611 09 000)
MAKASSAR
010
TEORI TEKTONIK LEMPENG
“Dan Dia menancapkan gunung-gunung di bumi supaya bumi itu tidak
goncang bersama kamu, (dan Dia menciptakan) sungai-sungai dan jalan-jalan
agar kamu mendapat petunjuk”(QS. An-Nahl 16:15)
“Dan kamu lihat gunung-gunung itu, kamu sangka dia tetap di tempatnya,
padahal ia berjalan sebagai jalannya awan. (Begitulah) perbuatan llah yang
membuat dengan kokoh tiap-tiap sesuatu! sesungguhnya llah "aha "engetahui
apa yang kamu kerjakan” (QS. An-Nahl 27:88)
Begitulah yang tertulis di dalam Al-Quran yang diturun!an 1" a#ad yang
lalu menyata!an #ah$a sesungguhnya gunung-gunung itu tida!lah diam
melain!an #ergera!. Al-Quran se%ara tida! langsung sudah mem#eri!an
gam#aran tentang adanya &ergera!an &ada #umi (lem&eng) yang &ada a!hirnya
#e#era&a a#ad !emudian mun%ullah te'ri-te'ri tentang adanya &ergera!an
lem&eng. (ang &aling ter!enal adalah T$%&' T$()%*'( L$+,$*-.
T$%&' T$()%*'( L$+,$*- (#ahasa )nggris: #late $ectonics) adalah te'ri
dalam #idang ge'l'gi yang di!em#ang!an untu! mem#eri &en*elasan terhada&
adanya #u!ti-#u!ti &ergera!an s!ala #esar yang dila!u!an 'leh lit's+er #umi.
,e'ri ini telah men%a!u& dan *uga mengganti!an Teori Pergeseran Benua yang
le#ih dahulu di!emu!a!an &ada &aruh &ertama a#ad !e-2- dan !'nse& seafloor
spreading yang di!em#ang!an &ada tahun 1.6--an.
P$&($+./*-/* T$%&'
/ada a!hir a#ad !e-1. dan a$al a#ad !e-2- ge'l'g #erasumsi #ah$a
!enam&a!an-!enam&a!an utama #umi #er!edudu!an teta&. 0e#anya!an
!enam&a!an ge'l'gis se&erti &egunungan #isa di*elas!an dengan &ergera!an
1erti!al !era! se&erti di*elas!an dalam $eori %eosinklin. Se*a! tahun 15.6 telah
diamati #ah$a &antai Samudera Atlanti! yang #erhada&-hada&an antara #enua
A+ri!a dan 2r'&a dengan Ameri!a 3tara dan Ameri!a Selatan memili!i
!emiri&an #entu! dan nam&a!nya &ernah men*adi satu. 0ete&atan ini a!an
sema!in *elas *i!a !ita melihat te&i-te&i dari &a&aran #enua di sana. Se*a! saat itu
#anya! te'ri telah di!emu!a!an untu! men*elas!an hal ini teta&i semuanya
menemui *alan #untu !arena asumsi #ah$a #umi adalah se&enuhnya &adat
menyulit!an &enemuan &en*elasan yang sesuai.
/enemuan radium dan si+at-si+at &emanasnya &ada tahun 18.6 mend'r'ng
&eng!a*ian ulang umur #umi !arena se#elumnya &er!iraan dida&at!an dari la*u
&endinginannya dan dengan asumsi &ermu!aan #umi #eradiasi se&erti #enda
hitam.

4ari &erhitungan terse#ut da&at disim&ul!an #ah$a #ah!an *i!a &ada
a$alnya #umi adalah se#uah #enda yang merah-&i*ar suhu Bumi a!an menurun
men*adi se&erti se!arang dalam #e#era&a &uluh *uta tahun. 4engan adanya
sum#er &anas yang #aru ditemu!an ini ma!a &ara ilmu$an mengangga& masu!
a!al #ah$a Bumi se#enarnya *auh le#ih tua dan intinya masih %u!u& &anas untu!
#erada dalam !eadaan %air.
Teori Tektonik Lempeng #erasal dari 5i&'tesis P$&-$0$&/* "$*1/
(continental dri&t) yang di!emu!a!an Alfred Wegener tahun 1.12. 4an
di!em#ang!an lagi dalam #u!unya $he 'rigin o& (ontinents and 'ceans ter#itan
tahun 1.15. )a mengemu!a!an #ah$a #enua-#enua yang se!arang ada dulu adalah
satu #entang mu!a yang #ergera! men*auh sehingga mele&as!an #enua-#enua
terse#ut dari inti #umi se&erti 6#'ng!ahan es6 dari granit yang #ermassa *enis
rendah yang mengam#ang di atas lautan #asal yang le#ih &adat. Namun tan&a
adanya #u!ti ter&erin%i dan &erhitungan gaya-gaya yang dili#at!an te'ri ini
di&inggir!an. 7ung!in sa*a #umi memili!i !era! yang &adat dan inti yang %air
teta&i tam&a!nya teta& sa*a tida! mung!in #ah$a #agian-#agian !era! terse#ut
da&at #ergera!-gera!.
0e%'%'!an 8 !esamaan 9aris /antai

%ambar ) *ecocokan garis pantai benua merika +elatan Bagian $imur dengan garis
pantai benua &rika Bagian Barat
:egener menduga #ah$a #enua-#enua terse#ut diatas &ada a$alnya
adalah satu atas dasar !esamaan garis &antai. Atas dasar inilah !emudian :egener
men%'#a untu! men%'%'!an semua #enua #enua yang ada di mu!a #umi.
/erse#aran ;'sil
4i!etemu!annya +'sil-+'sil yang #erasal dari #inatang dan tum#uhan yang
terse#ar luas dan ter&isah di #e#era&a #enua se&erti (gam#ar):
;'sil (ynognathus suatu re&til yang hidu& se!itar 2"- *uta tahun yang lalu
dan ditemu!an di #enua Ameri!a Selatan dan #enua A+ri!a.
;'sil "esosaurus suatu re&til yang hidu& di danau air ta$ar dan sungai yang
hidu& se!itar 26- *uta tahun yang lalu ditemu!an di #enua Ameri!a
Selatan dan #enua A+ri!a.
;'sil ,ystrosaurus suatu re&til yang hidu& di daratan se!itar 2"- *uta tahun
yang lalu ditemu!an di #enua #enua A+ri!a )ndia dan Antarti!a.
;'sil (lossopteris suatu tanaman yang hidu& 26- *uta tahun yang lalu
di*um&ai di #enua #enua A+ri!a Ameri!a Selatan )ndia Australia dan
Antarti!a.

%ambar ) #ersebaran &osil (ynognathus diketemukan hanya di benua merika +elatan
dan benua &rika! &osil ,ystrosaurus dijumpai di benua-benua &rika, -ndia,
dan ntartika! &osil "esosaurus di benua benua merika +elatan dan &rika,
dan &osil %lossopteris dijumpai di benua benua merika +elatan, &rika, -ndia,
ntartika, dan ustralia.
0esamaan <enis Batuan
<alur &egunungan A&&ala%hian yang #erada di #agian timur #enua Ameri!a
3tara dengan se#aran #erarah timurlaut dan se%ara ti#a-ti#a menghilang di &antai
Ne$+'undlands. /egunungan yang umurnya sama dengan &egunungan
A&&ala%hian *uga di*um&ai di British )sles dan S%andina1ia. 0edua &egunungan
terse#ut a&a#ila dileta!!an &ada l'!asi se#elum ter*adinya &emisahan 8
&enga&ungan !edua &egunungan ini a!an mem#entu! suatu *alur &egunungan
yang menerus.
Bu!ti )!lim /ur#a (/ale'%limati%)

%ambar ) +ebaran lapisan es di belahan bumi bagian selatan pada ./0 1 200 juta tahun yang lalu
serta sebaran &osil ,ystrosaurus dijumpai di benua-benua &rika, -ndia, dan ntartika!
&osil %lossopteris dijumpai di benua benua merika +elatan, &rika, -ndia, ntartika, dan
ustralia.
/ara ahli !e#umian *uga telah mem&ela*ari mengenai il!lim &ur#a dimana
&ada 25- *uta tahun yang lalu di!etahui #ah$a #elahan #umi #agian selatan &ada
=aman itu ter*adi i!lim dingin dimana #elahan #umi #agian selatan ditutu&i 'leh
la&isan es yang sangat te#al se&erti #enua Antarti!a Australia Ameri!a Selatan
A+ri!a dan )ndia.
/enga&ungan Benua dan /ale'magnetisme

0ur1a dari &er&indahan !utu# utara magnet #umi #erdasar!an hasil analisa
arah !emagnetan &ur#a yang tere!am dalam #atuan la1a yang #erasal dari hasil
analisa #atuan-#atuan di #enua 2r'&a dan Asia serta #atuan-#atuan yang #erasal
dari #enua Ameri!a 3tara. 0edua !ur1a &er&indahan !utu# utara magnet #umi
mem#entu! sudut >-
-
dan a&a#ila diangga& arah !utu# utara #umi teta&
ditem&atnya ma!a dengan %ara mennyatu!an !e dua !ur1a terse#ut da&at
men*elas!an adanya &er&indahan 8 &emisahan #enua-#enua se&erti &'sisi saat ini.
4i !emudian hari di#u!ti!anlah te'ri yang di!emu!a!an ge'l'g )nggris
Arthur Holmes tahun 1.2- #ah$a tautan #agian-#agian !era! ini !emung!inan
ada di #a$ah laut. ,er#u!ti *uga te'rinya #ah$a arus !'n1e!si di dalam mantel
#umi adalah !e!uatan &enggera!nya.
Bu!ti &ertama #ah$a lem&eng-lem&eng itu memang mengalami &ergera!an
dida&at!an dari &enemuan &er#edaan arah medan magnet dalam #atuan-#atuan
yang #er#eda usianya. /enemuan ini dinyata!an &ertama !ali &ada se#uah
sim&'sium di ,asmania tahun 1.56. 7ula-mula &enemuan ini dimasu!!an !e
dalam te'ri e!s&ansi #umi namun selan*utnya *ustru le#ih mengarah !e
&engem#angan te'ri te!t'ni! lem&eng yang men*elas!an &eme!aran (spreading)
se#agai !'nse!uensi &ergera!an 1erti!al (upwelling) #atuan teta&i
menghindar!an !eharusan adanya #umi yang u!urannya terus mem#esar atau
#ere!s&ansi (e3panding earth) dengan memasu!!an ='na su#du!si8hun*aman
(subduction 4one) dan sesar translasi (translation &ault). /ada $a!tu itulah te'ri
te!t'ni! lem&eng #eru#ah dari se#uah te'ri yang radi!al men*adi te'ri yang
umum di&a!ai dan !emudian diterima se%ara luas di !alangan ilmu$an. /enelitian
le#ih lan*ut tentang hu#ungan antara sea&loor spreading dan #ali!an medan
magnet #umi (geomagnetic re5ersal) 'leh ge'l'g Harry Hammond Hess dan
'sean'gra+ Ron G. Mason menun*u!!an dengan te&at me!anisme yang
men*elas!an &ergera!an 1erti!al #atuan yang #aru. 4alam tulisannya diurai!an
mengenai #u!ti-#u!ti adanya &eme!aran lantai samudra yang ter*adi di &ematang
tengah samudra (mid oceanic ridges), %uyots serta umur !era! samudra yang
le#ih muda dari 18- *uta tahun. 5i&'tesa &eme!aran lantai samudra &ada dasarnya
adalah suatu hi&'tesa yang mengangga& #ah$a #agian !ulit #umi yang ada
didasar samudra Atlanti! te&atnya di /ematang ,engah Samudra mengalami
&eme!aran yang dia!i#at!an 'leh gaya tari!an (tensi'nal +'r%e) yang digera!an
'leh arus !'n1e!si yang #erada di #agian mantel #umi (asten's+ir). A!i#at dari
&eme!aran yang ter*adi dise&an*ang sum#u /ematang ,engah Samudra ma!a
magma yang #erasal dari asten's+ir !emudian nai! dan mem#e!u.
%ambar ) rus kon5eksi yang menggerakan lantai samudra (litos&ir), pembentukan material baru
di #ematang $engah +amudra ("idoceanic ridge) dan penyusupan lantai samudra
kedalam interior bumi (astenos&ir) pada 4ona subduksi.
Seiring dengan diterimanya an'mali magneti! #umi yang ditun*u!!an
dengan la*ur-la*ur se*a*ar yang simetris dengan magnetisasi yang sama di dasar
laut &ada !edua sisi mid-oceanic ridge te!t'ni! lem&eng men*adi diterima se%ara
luas. 0ema*uan &esat dalam te!ni! &en%itraan seismi! mula-mula di dalam dan
se!itar zona WadatiBenioff dan #eragam '#ser1asi ge'l'gis lainnya ta! lama
!emudian mengu!uh!an te!t'ni! lem&eng se#agai te'ri yang memili!i
!emam&uan yang luar #iasa dalam segi &en*elasan dan &redi!si.
/enelitian tentang dasar laut dalam se#uah %a#ang ge'l'gi !elautan yang
#er!em#ang &esat &ada tahun 1.6--an memegang &eranan &enting dalam
&engem#angan te'ri ini. Se*alan dengan itu te'ri te!t'ni! lem&eng *uga
di!em#ang!an &ada a!hir 1.6--an dan telah diterima se%ara %u!u& uni1ersal di
semua disi&lin ilmu se!aligus *uga mem#aharui dunia ilmu #umi dengan
mem#eri &en*elasan #agi #er#agai ma%am +en'mena ge'l'gis dan *uga
im&li!asinya di dalam #idang lain se&erti &ale'ge'gra+i dan &ale'#i'l'gi.
P2/)$ 3/* P$&-$&/(/**4/
!enis"enis Batas Lempeng
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--11d7->55-.12--8.5%-"58-a8%
,iga *enis #atas lem&eng (plate boundary).
Ada tiga *enis #atas lem&eng yang #er#eda dari %ara lem&engan terse#ut #ergera!
relati+ terhada& satu sama lain. ,iga *enis ini masing-masing #erhu#ungan dengan
+en'mena yang #er#eda di &ermu!aan. ,iga *enis #atas lem&eng terse#ut adalah:
"/)/0 )&/*05%&+ (transform #oundaries) ter*adi *i!a lem&eng #ergera! dan
mengalami gese!an satu sama lain se%ara menyam&ing di se&an*ang sesar
trans+'rm (trans&orm &ault). 9era!an relati+ !edua lem&eng #isa sinistral (!e
!iri di sisi yang #erla$anan dengan &engamat) atau&un de!stral (!e !anan di
sisi yang #erla$anan dengan &engamat). Batas trans+'rm umumnya #erada
di dasar laut namun ada *uga yang #erada di daratan salah satunya adalah
+esar +an ndreas (+an ndreas 6ault) di ?ali+'rnia 3SA. Sesar ini
meru&a!an &ertemuan antara @em&eng Ameri!a 3tara yang #ergera! !e arah
tenggara dengan @em&eng /asi+i! yang #ergera! !e arah #arat laut.
"/)/0 3'6$&-$*7(%*0)&1()'5 (di$ergent%&onstru&ti$e #oundaries) ter*adi !eti!a
dua lem&eng #ergera! men*auh satu sama lain. "id-oceanic ridge dan ='na
reta!an (ri&ting) yang a!ti+ adalah %'nt'h #atas di1ergen.
"/)/0 (%*6$&-$*73$0)&1()'5 (&on$ergent%destru&ti$e #oundaries) ter*adi *i!a
dua lem&eng #ergese!an mende!ati satu sama lain sehingga mem#entu!
='na su#du!si *i!a salah satu lem&eng #ergera! di #a$ah yang lain atau
ta#ra!an #enua (continental collision) *i!a !edua lem&eng mengandung
!era! #enua. /alung laut yang dalam #iasanya #erada di ='na su#du!si di
mana &'t'ngan lem&eng yang terhun*am mengandung #anya! #ersi+at hidrat
(mengandung air) sehingga !andungan air ini dile&as!an saat &emanasan
ter*adi #er%am&ur dengan mantel dan menye#a#!an &en%airan sehingga
menye#a#!an a!ti1itas 1ul!ani!. ?'nt'h !asus ini da&at !ita lihat di
/egunungan Andes di Ameri!a Selatan dan #usur &ulau <e&ang (7apanese
island arc).
'ekuatan Penggerak Pergerakan Lempeng
/ergera!an lem&eng te!t'ni! #isa ter*adi !arena !e&adatan relati+ lit's+er
samudera dan !ara!ter asten's+er yang relati+ lemah. /ele&asan &anas dari mantel
telah dida&ati se#agai sum#er asli dari energi yang menggera!!an te!t'ni!
lem&eng. /andangan yang disetu*ui se!arang mes!i&un masih %u!u&
di&erde#at!an adalah #ah$a !ele#ihan !e&adatan lit's+er samudera yang
mem#uatnya menyusu& !e #a$ah di ='na su#du!si adalah sum#er ter!uat
&ergera!an lem&eng. /ada $a!tu &em#entu!annya di mid ocean ridge lit's+er
samudera &ada mulanya memili!i !e&adatan yang le#ih rendah dari asten's+er di
se!itarnya teta&i !e&adatan ini mening!at seiring dengan &enuaan !arena
ter*adinya &endinginan dan &ene#alan. Besarnya !e&adatan lit's+er yang lama
relati+ terhada& asten's+er di #a$ahnya memung!in!an ter*adinya &enyusu&an !e
mantel yang dalam di ='na su#du!si sehingga men*adi sum#er se#agian #esar
!e!uatan &enggera! &ergera!an lem&eng. 0elemahan asten's+er memung!in!an
lem&eng untu! #ergera! se%ara mudah menu*u !e arah ='na su#du!si. 7es!i&un
su#du!si di&er%aya se#agai !e!uatan ter!uat &enggera! &ergera!an lem&eng
masih ada gaya &enggera! lain yang di#u!ti!an dengan adanya lem&eng se&erti
lem&eng Ameri!a 3tara *uga lem&eng 2urasia yang #ergera! teta&i tida!
mengalami su#du!si di mana&un. Sum#er &enggera! ini masih men*adi t'&i!
&enelitian intensi+ dan dis!usi di !alangan ilmu$an ilmu #umi. /en%itraan dua
dan tiga dimensi interi'r #umi (t'm'gra+i seismi!) menun*u!!an adanya distri#usi
!e&adatan yang heter'gen se%ara lateral di seluruh mantel. Aariasi dalam
!e&adatan ini #isa #ersi+at material (dari !imia #atuan) mineral (dari 1ariasi
stru!tur mineral) atau termal (melalui e!s&ansi dan !'ntra!si termal dari energi
&anas). 7ani+estasi dari !eheter'genan !e&adatan se%ara lateral adalah !'n1e!si
mantel dari gaya a&ung (buoyancy &orces). Bagaimana !'n1e!si mantel
#erhu#ungan se%ara langsung dan tida! dengan &ergera!an &lanet masih men*adi
#idang yang sedang di&ela*ari dan di#in%ang!an dalam ge'dinami!a. 4engan satu
atau lain %ara energi ini harus di&indah!an !e lit's+er su&aya lem&eng te!t'ni!
#isa #ergera!. Ada dua *enis gaya yang utama dalam &engaruhnya !e &ergera!an
&lanet yaitu +ri!si dan gra1itasi.

“Dan Dia menancapkan gunung-gunung di bumi supaya bumi itu tidak goncang bersama kamu, (dan Dia menciptakan) sungai-sungai dan jalan-jalan agar kamu mendapat petunjuk”(QS. An-Nahl 16:15) “Dan kamu lihat gunung-gunung itu, kamu sangka dia tetap di tempatnya, padahal ia berjalan sebagai jalannya awan. (Begitulah) perbuatan Allah yang membuat dengan kokoh tiap-tiap sesuatu; sesungguhnya Allah Maha Mengetahui apa yang kamu kerjakan” (QS. An-Nahl 27:88) Begitulah yang tertulis di dalam Al-Quran, yang diturunkan 14 abad yang lalu menyatakan bahwa sesungguhnya gunung-gunung itu tidaklah diam, melainkan bergerak. Al-Quran secara tidak langsung sudah memberikan gambaran tentang adanya pergerakan pada bumi (lempeng), yang pada akhirnya beberapa abad kemudian muncullah teori-teori tentang adanya pergerakan lempeng. Yang paling terkenal adalah Teori Tektonik Lempeng. Teori Tektonik Lempeng (bahasa Inggris: Plate Tectonics) adalah teori dalam bidang geologi yang dikembangkan untuk memberi penjelasan terhadap adanya bukti-bukti pergerakan skala besar yang dilakukan oleh litosfer bumi. Teori ini telah mencakup dan juga menggantikan Teori Pergeseran Benua yang lebih dahulu dikemukakan pada paruh pertama abad ke-20 dan konsep seafloor spreading yang dikembangkan pada tahun 1960-an. Perkembangan Teori Pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, geolog berasumsi bahwa kenampakan-kenampakan utama bumi berkedudukan tetap. Kebanyakan kenampakan geologis seperti pegunungan bisa dijelaskan dengan pergerakan vertikal kerak seperti dijelaskan dalam Teori Geosinklin. Sejak tahun 1596, telah diamati bahwa pantai Samudera Atlantik yang berhadap-hadapan antara benua Afrika dan Eropa dengan Amerika Utara dan Amerika Selatan memiliki kemiripan bentuk dan nampaknya pernah menjadi satu. Ketepatan ini akan semakin jelas jika kita melihat tepi-tepi dari paparan benua di sana. Sejak saat itu

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