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III.1 Fungsi Dua Variabel

III.1 Fungsi Dua Variabel

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Published by: apricool74 on Jun 23, 2011
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06/20/2013

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III.

TURUNAN DALAM RUANG BERDIMENSI n
III.1 Fungsi dengan Dua Peubah atau Lebih
Sampai kini telah ada dua jenis fungsi yang muncul. Pertama, diberikan contoh f(x) = x
2
,
yang mengaitkan bilangan riil lain f(x). Kita sebut f(x ini sebagai fungsi bernilai riil dari
perubah riil. !enis fungsi yang kedua, diilustrasikan oleh f(x) = (x
3
-℮
x
), mengaitkan bilangan
riil x dengan "ekto f(x). #ungsi itu kita sebut fungsi bernilai "ektor dari peubah riil.
Perhatian kita sekarang berpidah kesatu fungsi bernilai rill dari dua peubah riil$ yakni
fungsi f yang menandakan setiap pasangan terurut (x,y) dalam himpunan % pada bidang
dengan bilangan riil (tunggal) f (x,y). Sebagai contoh &
') f (x,y) = x
(
) *y
(
() g (x,y) = (x+y
Perhatiakan bah,a f (-',.) = (-')
(
) *(.)
(
= ./ dan g (-',.) = ((-') .= -.
0impunan % disebut daerah asal (domain) fungsi. !ika daerah asal fungsi tidak diperinci,
kita ambil % berupa daerah asal alami (natural domain), yakni himpunan semua titik (x,y) =
x
(
) *y
(
, daerah mulanya adalah seluruh bidang$ untuk g (x,y) = (x y , daerah asal mulanya
adalah 1(x,y) : ε R, y 23. Daerah hasil (range) suatu fungsi adalah himpunan nilai-
nilainya. !ika 4 = f (x,y), kita sebut x dan y eubah bebas !independent variable" dan 4
eubah ta# bebas.(dependent variable)
Semua yang telah kami nyatakan, dapat meluas menjadi fungsi real dari tiga peubah reall
(atau bahkan n peubah real) kita bebas menggunakan fungsi-fungsi yang demikian tanpa
komentar lebih lanjut.
'
5ontoh '
%alam bidang xy, buatlah grafik daerah asal mula untuk
( )
( (
(
) ' (
,
− +

· ·
y x
x y
y x f
Penyelesaian : agar aturan ini bermakna, kita harus mengeluarkan
1(x,y): y > x
2
3 dan titik (,'). %aerah asal yang dihasilkan dapat anda lihat dalam gambar '.
(gambar dapat dilihat pada buku paket halaman (./)
5ontoh ( &
Sketsalah peta kontur untuk 4 = f (x,y) =
( (
. / *6
*
'
y x − −

Penyelesaian : 7isalkan 4 =
( (
. / *6
*
'
y x − −
dan perhatikan bah,a 4 2
!ika kedua ruas kita kuadratkan dan menyederhanakannya diperoleh persamaan

( )
( ( (
. / *6
/
'
y x z − − ·


*6 / . /
( ( (
· + + z y x
8ang dikenal sebagai persamaan dari sebuah elipsoid . 9rafik dari fungsi ini merupakan
setengah bagian atas elipsoid (gambar . hal (./)

:ntuk mengambar dengan mudah kita gunakan perangkat lunak(softare: !aple dan
!at"emati#a)
5ontoh *&
Sketsa grafik dari
( )
( (
, x y y x f z − · ·
Penyelesaian 9rafik berbentuk paraboloid ( gambar ; hal (./)
(
9rafik Komputer & <eberapa perangkat lunak(softare),termasuk !aple dan !at"emati#a,
mampu menghasilkan grafik-grafik berdimensi tiga yang rumit dengan mudah.
(belumselesai lihat hal (./ (;)
*
Equation.3
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Equation.3
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===.( >:?:@A@ PA?S=AB
Andaikan f adalah fungsi dengan dua peubah x dan y. !ika y dijaga agar tetap
konstan, misalnya
o
y y ·
maka
( )
o
y x f ,
adalah fungsi dengan peubah tunggal x.
>urunannya di
o
x x ·
disebut Turunan parsial f terhadap x di
( )
o o
y x ,
dan dinyatakan
sebagai
( )
o o x
y x f ,
jadi

%engan cara serupa turunan parsial f terhadap y di
( )
o o
y x ,
dinyatakan dengan
( )
o o y
y x f ,

dan dirumuskan dengan


%aripada menghitung
( )
o o x
y x f ,
dan
( )
o o y
y x f ,
secara langsung dari rumus didalam
kotak diatas, biasanya kita dapat menentukan
( ) y x f
x
,
da dengan mengunakan aturan C
aturan standar turunan, kemudian kita memsubtitusikan
o o
y y dan x x · ·
.
$%nt%h 1&
>entukan
( ) ( , '
x
f
dan
( ) ( , '
y
f
jika
( )
* (
* , y y x y x f + ·
Penyelesaian &
:ntuk menentukan
( ) y x f
x
,
kita anggap y sebagai konstanta dan mendiferensialkannya
terhadap x, menghasilkan

( ) ( , + · xy y x f
x

.
( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
sin ( cos .
sin . ( . cos
( . sin cos
sin sin
xy x xy y x
x
z
xy x y xy x
x xy xy
x
xy x
x
x
xy xy
x
x
x
z
+ ·


+ ·
+


·


+


·


( ) [ ] ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
( ( ( (
sin ( cos .
sin . ( . cos
( . sin cos
sin sin
xy x xy y x
x
z
xy x y xy x
x xy xy
x
xy x
x
x
xy xy
x
x
x
z
+ ·


+ ·
+


·


+


·


( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( *
( (
( ( (
( (
cos . (
( . cos
cos
sin
xy y x
y
z
xy xy x
xy
y
xy x
xy
y
x
y
z
·


·


·


·


jadi
( ) ( , '
x
f
= (.'.( = .
%engan cara yang sama, kita anggap x sebagai konstanta dan menndiferensialkanya
terhadap y, dan menghasilkan
( )
( (
/ , y x y x f
y
+ ·

jadi
( ) ( , '
y
f
=
*D ( . / '
( (
· +
!ika
( ) y x f z , ·
kita menggunakan notasi-notasi alternatif berikut
( )
( )
x
y x f
x
z
y x f
x


·


·
,
,

( )
( )
y
y x f
y
z
y x f
y


·


·
,
,
( )
( )
o o
y x o o x
x
z
y x f
,
E ,


·

( )
( )
o o
y x o o y
y
z
y x f
,
E ,


·
Simbol

adalah tanda turunan parsial
Simbol Csimbol
y
dan
x ∂



mempersentasikan operator-operator linear,sama seperti
operator-operator
dx
d
dan $
x
pada turunan.
$%nt%h '&
!ika
( )
( (
sin xy x z ·
tentukan
y
z
dan
x
z




Penyelesaian

;
INTERPRESTASI GE(METRI) DAN INTERPRESTASI FISIS.
>injaulah permukaan yang mempunyai persamaan
( ) y x f z , ·
bidang
o
y y ·
memotong
permukaan ini pada kur"a bidang FP? (gambar' hal (;6)
%an nilai dari
( )
o o x
y x f ,
adalah kemiringan garis singgung terhadap kur"a ini di
( ) ( )
o o o o
y x f y x P , , ,
. %emikian pula, bidang
o
x x ·
memotong permukaan tersebut di kur"a
bidang BP7 (gambar ( hal (;D) dan
( )
o o y
y x f ,
adalah kemiringan garis singgung
dengan kur"a ini di P.
>urunan-turunan parsial juga dapat diinterprestasikan sebagai laju (sesaat)perubahan.
Andaikan sebuah senar biola terbentang diantara titik A dan <, dan begetar pada
bidang x4 (gambar* hal (;D) menunjukkan posisi senar tersebut pada ,aktu t. !ika
s = f(x,t) menyatakan tinggi senar di titik P dengan absis x pada ,aktu t, maka
x
z


adalah
kemiringan senar di P, dan
t
z


adalah laju ,aktu dari perubahan ketinggian dari P di
sepanjang garis "ertikal yang diketahui . %engan kata lain,
t
z


adalah kecepatan "ertikal
6
dari P
$%nt%h *&
Permukaan
( )
( (
( / , y x y x f z − − · ·
dan bidang y = ' berpotongan dalam sebuah kur"a
seperti pada gambar '. >entukan persamaan Cpersamaan parametrik untuk garis singgung
di
) ( , ' , ( (

Penyelesaian

( ) ( ) ( ) x y x y x f
x
. ( *
(
'
,
(
'
( (
− − − ·

Sehingga
( ) ( ' , ( − ·
x
f
bilangan ini adalah kemiringan gaaris singgung terhadap
kur"a di
) ( , ' , ( (
&dalam hal ini
' G ( −
adalah rasio kenaikan terhadap penambahan di
sepanjang garis singgung tersebut .0asilnya adalah bah,a garis ini mempunyai bilangan-
bilangan arah
( ) ( , , ' −
dankarena garis ini melalui
) ( , ' , ( (
maka

t z y x ( ( ' ' ( − · · + ·
7enghsilkan persamana-persamaan parametrik yang diinginkan.
>urunan Parsial yang Bebih >inggi
Karena turunan parsial dari suatu fungsi x dan y, secara umu adalh sebuah fungsi lain dari
dua peubah yang sama tersebut, maka turunan tersebut dapat dideferensialkan secara parsial
terhadap x dan y, menghasilkan empat buah turunan arsial #edua (se#ond partial
derivative) dari f.
D
(
(
x
f
x
f
x
f
xx


·
,
_

¸
¸




·

(
(
y
f
y
f
y
f
yy


·

,
_

¸
¸




·
( )
x y
f
x
f
y
f f
y x xy
∂ ∂

·
,
_

¸
¸




· ·
(

( )
y x
f
y
f
x
f f
x
y yx
∂ ∂

·

,
_

¸
¸




· ·
(
$%nt%h +&
>entukan empat turunan parsial dari
( ) ( )
( *
G sin , y x y x xe y x f
y
+ − ·
Penyelesaian
( )
( (
* cos
'
, y x
y
x
y
e y x f
y
x
+

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
( )
( (
* cos
'
, y x
y
x
y
e y x f
y
y
+

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
( )
(
(
6 sin
'
, xy
y
x
y
y x f
xx
+

,
_

¸
¸
·
( )
*
*
( cos
(
sin , x
y
x
y
x
y
x
y
x
xe y x f
y
yy
+

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
( ) y x
y
x
y y
x
y
x
e y x f
y
xy
(
( *
6 cos
'
sin , +

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
− ·

( ) y x
y
x
y y
x
y
x
e y x f
y
yx
(
( *
6 cos
'
sin , +

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
%ari
yx xt
f f ·
yang sebenarnya merupakan kasus untuk fungsi dengan dua peubah yang
%ijumpai pada bab pertama.
>urunan Cturunan parsial ketga atau lebih dapat didefinisikan secara analogis, dan notasi
penulisan serupa. !adi jika f fungsi dengan dua peubah x dan y , maka turunan parsial
H
ketiga f diperoleh dengan mendeferensialkan f secara parsial. Pertama terhadap x dan
kemudian dua kali terhadap y , dapat dinyatakan dengan &

xyy
f
x y
f
x y
f
y x
f
y y
·
∂ ∂

·
1
]
1

¸

∂ ∂



·
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸






(
( (
Secara keseluruhan terdapat delapan turunan parsial ketiga.
Fungsi dengan lebih dari Dua Peubah
7isalkan f adalah fungsi dengan tiga peubah x,y dan 4. Turunan arsial , terhada -
di !-./.0" dinyatakan dengan
( ) z y x f
x
, ,
atau
( )
x
z y x f

∂ , ,
dan didefinisikan sebagai
( )
( ) ( )
x
z y x f z y x x f
z y x f
x
x
Λ
− Λ +
·
→ Λ
, , , ,
lim , ,

!adi,
( ) z y x f
x
, ,
dapat diperoleh dengan melakukan y dan 4 sebagai konstanta
mendeferensialkan terhaderhadap yap x.
>urunan Cturunan parsial terhadap y dan 4 didefinisikan secara analogis. >urunan Cturunan
parsial dari fungsi dengan empat peubah atau lebih dapat didefinisikan dengan cara yang
sama. >urunan Cturunan parsial, seperti
xyz xy
f dan f
yang menggunakan
pendeferensialan terhadap lebih dari satu peubah disebut Turunan arsial 1a2uran.
!mixedpartial derivative"
$%nt%h 3&
!ika
( ) zx yz xy z y x f * ( , , + + ·
tentukan
z y x
f dan f f ,
..
/
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
. (
( (
y x y x y x
e xz e xz

e z
x x
%
+ + + + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

Penyelesaian
:ntuk memperoleh
x
f
kita anggap y dan 4 sebagai konstanta, dan mendeferensialkan
terhadap peubah x. !adi
( ) z y z y x f
x
* , , + ·
( ) z x z y x f
y
( , , + ·
( ) x y z y x f
z
* ( , , + ·
$%nt%h 4.
!ika
( )
( ( (
, , ,
y x
e z z y x %
+ +
·
tentukan seluruh turnan parsial pertama dan
(
( ( (
, ,
z
%
x
%
x
%


∂ ∂

∂ ∂

Penyelesaian &
( ( ( ( ( (
(
y x y x
e z e z

%
+ + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·


(
( ( ( ( ( (
(
y x y x
e xz e z
x x
%
+ + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·


( ( ( ( ( (
(
y x y x
e yz e z
y y
%
+ + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·


( ( ( ( ( (
y x y x
e e z
z z
%
+ + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·


>urunan parsial lainnya
'
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (
. (
( (
y x y x y x
e xz e z
x
e z
x x
%
+ + + + + +
·

,
_

¸
¸


·

,
_

¸
¸
∂ ∂

·
∂ ∂

( )
( ( ( ( ( (
(
(
(
(
·


·

,
_

¸
¸


·


+ + + + y x y x
e
z
e z
z z
%
S%al
'. >entukan seluruh turunan parsial pertama dari setiap fungsi berikut
a.
( ) ( )
.
( , y x y x f − ·
b.
( ) x e y x f
y
sin , ·
c.
( )
xy
x y x g

· ,
(. <uktukan bah,a

( (
·
∂ ∂

+
∂ ∂

y x
f
x y
f
dari
( )
; * * (
( , y x y x y x f − ·
*. !ika
( ) ( ) ( ) ( , * ( , *
(
, − −

·
y x
& dan & tentu'an
xy
y x
y x &
.. <erikan dalam bentuk limit turunan-turunan parsial berikut
a.
( ) z y x f
y
, ,
c.
( ) z y x (
x
, , ,
b.
( ) z y x f
z
, ,
d.
( ) t z y x
z
,. ,. ,. λ



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