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Luhut Sihombing Analisis Tataniaga Kentang Di Propinsi Sumatera Utara

Luhut Sihombing Analisis Tataniaga Kentang Di Propinsi Sumatera Utara

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A n a T l ia s t i as Kn ntaa ngdiga P r o pS iun ms Ua tt ae rr aa ei i M a r k A e n t ai nol ygf so i tsi an Proo v i n Ncf eo S tuhater a P t o r m L u hS ui ht o m b i n g

P e n dg Dia ej aSp r ot . Es ika ol nP oe m t aiF na ki aPu nel t,r at U n iUM ,ne d2 a0 n1 5 5 r as S a D i t e 2r 9Jmu 200 5/ Dis e t 3 0Au g u 200u5s i na i u j i st

T h rees erc ahw a d s o in n te h p e r o d cu ec nto i t ofp e nor tN a ot oSumh a ( t De icirt saof t r rt T a n K a a h rD o a, Si r i im, a al u n nTag pu anU n t ua i lrni A )u g 2u 0s 0t 4T .h o e b j e oc ft hi v e e s d a r e s w aet rorkc e nh omarke st t r u mc keau chr ea ,an ne thedl e f ief en occ pot a mt o a r kThee t i n g . e w t tr fy f i g u sr ewersd ep r i ma na s dre y dar oy dn a b t yau s it nh des c r iap nt s dvt ae at i ns at iThe a s l i s . c ge i lc y r e si nu dedt i ct ha thaet mar k e s t yi ns ogt pef m ti na r te o s ea ar wr caanh s oe t fie f inyc te These l t o e t. m a wt t e s rh es o w t nh d e e c rob efy a rs mes he par sr eo’t hf i net , c r oe marks e tmi n n, r g i fa ag m a r r agat i n omd a f rl g ati ntme nomid d ls ea m th deeden c loi nthf eecor r e lc a o t ei o fandi c i e n t i a n g n nf p r ti cr ae n s em l a i s T st hi comint iyo .nl oe mt a r sk ye s t cti nea bgmn ed s o bn yse t r e n the t h e n i n g coe p f g e x i is n t ti (ni ft gau rt gro ue apr ns v ’d i l ul a n og i ra ioen ) s, ot h t ah mte a r f ku en t csi ntu igaoc shn s m e pte t m kea itrn f o ra mn mdanaat g o e n rm i sc eka bn et p ed. m i s i n o ti K e y w e of f ri d mfse :na cr kcy eh el i on mfn ,a ngr k,e el at ois pft ir cti cri tae y n on. m i s s i co i ta g s P e n ei nl di it ii laa nkdi u P k r ao npSumn sa iUt e t ra da r ea n, lgo ak snaa s mi s pe en lt r a i s e n t r a k pe rn o (t da un kg su Ti pa a n K aea hnD o a, Si r i im, a l du an Tng a u p n aU nt au rl ia ) K a b t r p a bd ua lJ au 200 3 T. u j up ae n ei n l ai i t di aau nl na m u ek n g s et ur uap kha tuss iaa rl u, r a n nl i th rt t a t a dn ai en fg i sa pi ee nm s ak se an r tDatnnay g a . nd gi g u nm a ek ladi pn put art i m e r a i aa a dan s e k u An nd ae ylr ia.s ndi s gi g u na ad kaaal nan isahd l ie s s k ra ianp n t ia fs l it sa i ts H s ilat i sk a . d i p e n em l i et ina un nb jau hsk teks mp n e m ak se an rdt aadi nna geph e n eb lei tl eiua fmin s i e n . w a i ra H ai nld i i c i or il ker eah n d a h so nhf yipa t aer et ta i n gi , marki ne y tmai n n,g rn g i si m aa hr g i n p r g a b k e u n ty u a nkn gug ar m n e gr ai nt atm a leir daemn, r e n d an hi kl an o iy e a kf i os ir dee anl an s i n d a d e l a s tra i ns is t hm as i rsUgi pa ap ye an y e m s ips uttaer tnma a nda i aan pdg ai t te md ep nu gh a n t a . p e n g ke al et m n by aa gna agd a(aKn e l o m a pnd oia k K U D s) e, h i nf ug ng ga s i - f u n g s i u a T n t a t a s npeeri at i ign af o pr ma sra iam rki ,a n ad j ae bpm ea ekt s nee rc oj a p r ta i m a l . s K a k t ua n e cf i s: pi ee nm s ai s sa a l tur a r tan a n, en li a sgt tra ias, ni ht saams r gi s a i .

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M e n Du i rn u a e s r t Ta an ni a a nm a n Pt P a n gP ar n p S i nu sm i aU tt ea trraaa h u n o 2 0 0 1 k e n t a n g ( S nu l m o a tu bsu rom ) e d i n y as te a b k k a ogn m t i ah s o r t i k u l t u r a a odi a u n g g u la n y a n g m e m ilik i k e u n g g u la n k o m p Da ar s ar ei tt gikenii. s a, g r i ibn i is n i s f s u dc au hk b u e p r k e dm a mn ae nn gdy ie b a r b b a n y a k tan d i S u m aU t t ea r r aa , Kecam a t e r u ta m a K a b u p a t e n K a r o , D a ir i d a n S i m a l uK no gn us nt e.n rt brterda s p ia a r t e ae d Ki a b u Kp aa( rBoeP n2 0 0 2 ) . t S,

D a s r ei pg ri o ivd t ua d ks a t m u t u , i n k e n tr a nkd ygPi ar o pS i un m i Ua t ae r a t s s u dt e h g co ul ok t nui ngp gD ge i n. kg aa tn a a r l a hi n u a l ug r ikb oi sm n ioi ns sdi ui t dao asn ht r .a Sc uk sb i s t pe am s c a - pt er or ud tu a k ms i a, p e m a ms ae r au bnp aa gky iaa nnp ga l i n g l e m p ae hr j ak loa mn aok nde n t m a s un lga i i ta d a p r ei tprao nd i u ss ea nm k pek ao in s u m e n a k hy i ar ,nd gi c i rdi ke an ngr ea n d a h n y a s h pa er etdal an mikeg ana tt a t ga ya. i a a i a n M e n g in g a t u m u m n y a m o t iv a s i p e t a n e i n a kn ea nmt aa dn agul an ht u k m

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1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en.l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :.t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei . a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n.yi x . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t. a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni .i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha. d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 . S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g ..Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) . a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji.i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ).h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma. ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i . s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td . 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a .h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto . ra n t r= xi . kr j ei nu n t u n g a n . G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s. rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a. ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans .nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np . a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi. h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c .Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol. a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke . ) . m a k a : bi = Xi. a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr.y i 2 2 . 40 • No. 1 9 8 0 ).i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir .

p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui .900 0 / h aD / te hn ng .a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i. a n a .P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g. ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t. ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i .t . d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i .eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. 3 . 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g .kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar . 00 p n . a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = . t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e. e r t pa em d a a .a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky. f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 . 1 .9 d a e ra h . . 4 .. a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e . 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D. d i t e R i p 2 a.a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi .P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y.u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l . P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e.7 4 /h a /th n . Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk . . e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l . . e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n .i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i . P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 .h 9 7 . t a a 1 . dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P. pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a . 1 .K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . u l 1 . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt.t 5b ru l a n . 1 P.s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n. s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm. 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2.yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n .d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l . 2 P.

k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1. . td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a. P e r .M a l a Fy us ni aug . rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p .4 a5 i1 o n .n u . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d . 1 . d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 . a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n. 9r S e. 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 .t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r .R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g .e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern . e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k. Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara .1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g.b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa .ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr . i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan. a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 .t i g a . 6 P.g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i .d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad .

49 6.25 6. transportasi b.a2 h.23 3.Marjin keuntungan . bongkar muat .15 0.27 0.Biaya a.76 5.52 % 74.750.72 4.64 0. 2. t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 . marketing loss c.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang .9 239.04 7.8 5 / k dg e.2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai. 1 8 r g d (1 6 .53 0.76 0.25 62.35 11.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir .50 265.47 0. biaya.1 1 .17 1.12 9.165 369.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2.25 40.21 129. a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa .075 20.75 2.22 6. transportasi b. m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n. 5.70 0. d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .16 134. bongkar muat . 4.15 10.50 75 ( 7 4 .22 17. transportasi b.68 3.marjin keuntungan . B i a y a s 7r .28 2.Biaya a.H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig.31 3.10 0.92 2. %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l . bongkar muat .925 3.67 3.11 0.21 25.17 0.25 3. b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol .Marjin keuntungan . transportasi b.075 3.925.9 100 0.57 0.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .24 6. marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1. bongkar muat d.15 1. .90 21.nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar .Biaya a. 9 5 .57 5.95 1.Marjin keuntungan . 6. %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n .biaya a. marketing loss c.10 3669. p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a .750. Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting . marketing loss c. bea cukai .10 207. 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue . marketing loss c. .20 4.Tabel 1.51 3.165 27.75 2.00 1. Marjin.l a i n .P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l .484 .

a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o . n 1 9 1. A G. 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ . e n s 1 9 7 9 . aSum a t e r a i 02 .s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8. 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n . 3.pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n . e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n . e s s . a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k .a n d .k a r t a . 0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH .h 2%. h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a .a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t . is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a .i H a.s 6a1 r0 . ar . J& K o ah n l Rd . bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l. 1 9 0.0 0 1 . n1t 9 8 5S .a gta ga.a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi .c S2. s 2 . .m e n a w a r n y a .1 9 8 1 N . S a e f u d Ad . hI ni nc g. 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 . p e n g u k me dp u al . t a tT i se to idkr ai n o.. . 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r.n Ian tci o n a . . P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l. an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm.y r6a . Lr . a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e. L en. r9 5 %s . a d a s l ea bh 0 . n k u s s..i M . j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e. LR . a r t a .t oy Hs. A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu . o l d b e57 g. . ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a . I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r . d a n g k a n ak P i n d R .. k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa.s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no .8 3 3 .e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 .nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n . W J. d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn.ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. n R . P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y .a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a. e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna .d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8. I n t r o n. y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 .. A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . 20 0 ). H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ . k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl . ta o r nv . e J sa sk . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM . d 19r . i c h 19 r8d 0. r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n . .9 / k g . a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a . M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u . m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k . . e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l. i ac s s.

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