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ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans .nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np .i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ). rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a. a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi.i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke . 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a . S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g . 1 9 8 0 ). a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr. ) . G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s. d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 . h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c . a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji.1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t. a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni .i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir .h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto .Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol..Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) . 40 • No. s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td . kr j ei nu n t u n g a n .l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :.t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei . a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke . aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en.y i 2 2 . ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i .yi x . ra n t r= xi .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha. a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n. m a k a : bi = Xi.h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma.

eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = . d i t e R i p 2 a.s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n. e r t pa em d a a .900 0 / h aD / te hn ng . Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk .t .a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i. s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm. a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e . d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i . dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P.d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l .9 d a e ra h .h 9 7 .a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi .a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky. e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n . 00 p n . t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e. 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D.u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l .t 5b ru l a n .P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y. P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e. 1 . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt. 1 P. u l 1 . f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 .K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . 2 P. p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui . e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l . ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i . 4 .P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g. 3 . 1 .7 4 /h a /th n . 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2. . 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r .. pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a . P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 . . t a a 1 . .yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n . ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t.kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g .i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i . a n a .

t i g a . 1 .ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr . 9r S e.t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r .e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d . d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 . P e r . a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n. td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a. k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1. 6 P.d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad .1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g. i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan. 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 . Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara . a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 .n u .b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa . . rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p .M a l a Fy us ni aug .R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g . e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k.g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i .4 a5 i1 o n .

transportasi b.15 0.31 3. 1 8 r g d (1 6 .35 11.90 21.67 3. p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a .9 100 0.53 0. marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1.76 5. marketing loss c.075 20. .Tabel 1. marketing loss c. b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol . bongkar muat d.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .28 2.22 6.22 17.9 239. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa . marketing loss c. transportasi b.17 1.21 25.marjin keuntungan .750.75 2.52 % 74. %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l .47 0. marketing loss c. 6. transportasi b.Marjin keuntungan .00 1.Biaya a.21 129. Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting .16 134.484 .2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai.75 2. transportasi b.Biaya a.20 4.Biaya a.925.8 5 / k dg e.23 3.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir .biaya a.17 0.24 6. bea cukai .165 27. Marjin.04 7.76 0.72 4.Marjin keuntungan .51 3.25 3.925 3.Marjin keuntungan . d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .10 207.50 75 ( 7 4 .a2 h.12 9.25 62.165 369.075 3.95 1. bongkar muat .70 0.68 3.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang .15 10.92 2.l a i n . B i a y a s 7r .57 0. 2.25 6. biaya.10 3669.11 0.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2. .10 0.nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar . t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 .57 5.25 40. a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a.1 1 . 9 5 .49 6. m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n.H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig. %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n .50 265.P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l . bongkar muat .750.64 0. 5. bongkar muat . 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue .27 0.15 1. 4.

0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH . n 1 9 1. h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a . a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k .k a r t a . A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u .y r6a .m e n a w a r n y a . r9 5 %s . r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n . e J sa sk . is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a .e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 ..s 6a1 r0 . k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa. I n t r o n. a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . a d a s l ea bh 0 . hI ni nc g. ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a .h 2%.8 3 3 . n1t 9 8 5S . e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n . i ac s s. j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e. bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l.a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e. S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n . .i M . p e n g u k me dp u al . I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r . 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n .1 9 8 1 N . .a n d . M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. LR . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k . m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr . a r t a . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a . e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna .pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n .9 / k g . an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm. 1 9 0. 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ . . H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ .n Ian tci o n a . J& K o ah n l Rd . .s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no . d 19r . e n s 1 9 7 9 . L en..a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a. s 2 .a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o . 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 . aSum a t e r a i 02 . n k u s s. A G.. ar . n R .nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . e s s . t a tT i se to idkr ai n o. A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y . ta o r nv . i c h 19 r8d 0.d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8.c S2. o l d b e57 g. 20 0 ).a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi . . y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 .. A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM .0 0 1 .t oy Hs. d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn.i H a.a gta ga. d a n g k a n ak P i n d R . 3. Lr . S a e f u d Ad . 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r.s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8.ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. . W J. k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl . P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y . e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l. P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l.