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a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr.y i 2 2 .t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei .i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e. 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a . a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni . h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c . rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a. 40 • No. ra n t r= xi . a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi. m a k a : bi = Xi.nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np . 1 9 8 0 ). aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en. a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke . kr j ei nu n t u n g a n . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t.l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :. ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i . d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 .yi x .i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ). G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s.h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir . a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n.Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) . a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji.1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha. ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans ..h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto .Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol. S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g .i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke . ) .

dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P. e r t pa em d a a . s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm.i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i .a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i. d i t e R i p 2 a. a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e .K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a . 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D.u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l .a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi .yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n . f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 . P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 . 00 p n .P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y. 4 . . a n a .h 9 7 . ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i . 1 . u l 1 .9 d a e ra h . P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e. .t .eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l .900 0 / h aD / te hn ng . ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t.7 4 /h a /th n . t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e.P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g. Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk . p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui . 2 P.. 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r . a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = . 1 . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt. . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g .d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l .kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar . 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2.a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky.s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n. d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i . 3 .t 5b ru l a n . t a a 1 . 1 P. e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n .

a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d .b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa . .t i g a .1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g.4 a5 i1 o n . i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan.g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i . Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara . P e r . 6 P.e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern .t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r .ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr . k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1. e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k. td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a. a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n. rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p . 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 .R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g . d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 .d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad .n u . 9r S e. 1 .M a l a Fy us ni aug .

22 17.51 3.70 0.57 0.750.nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar .biaya a.17 1.00 1.marjin keuntungan .15 0.20 4.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .11 0.10 0.90 21.25 40.04 7. transportasi b.50 265. marketing loss c.57 5.25 62. biaya. B i a y a s 7r .075 3. transportasi b. .925 3. b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol .22 6. marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir . a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a. 2.50 75 ( 7 4 .075 20.Biaya a.Tabel 1.76 0.12 9.35 11. m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n.75 2.21 129. bea cukai .l a i n .52 % 74. transportasi b.1 1 . %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n . %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l .25 3.Marjin keuntungan . p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a .23 3.9 239.15 10.165 369.165 27. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa . 5.28 2.10 207.750.8 5 / k dg e.72 4.21 25. bongkar muat d.68 3. t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 . transportasi b.95 1.76 5.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2.47 0.15 1. bongkar muat . 4. 6. marketing loss c.75 2.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang .53 0.Biaya a.64 0. marketing loss c. 9 5 . bongkar muat .16 134.2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai.Biaya a.9 100 0. marketing loss c. bongkar muat .484 .27 0. Marjin.24 6. 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue .49 6.Marjin keuntungan .P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l .17 0.25 6. d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig.a2 h.92 2.31 3.67 3.925.10 3669. . 1 8 r g d (1 6 .Marjin keuntungan . Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting .

n 1 9 1.a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi . Lr . aSum a t e r a i 02 .i H a. t a tT i se to idkr ai n o. I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r . .y r6a . j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e.a gta ga. y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 . o l d b e57 g.a n d . a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y . .. k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa. . A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u .t oy Hs. P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y . n k u s s.k a r t a . a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k .ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l.e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 . 20 0 ). L en. r9 5 %s . S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n . I n t r o n. i c h 19 r8d 0.a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o .a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t .s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no . ..1 9 8 1 N . d a n g k a n ak P i n d R . M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a . S a e f u d Ad .s 6a1 r0 . s 2 .h 2%. e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n . W J.9 / k g . 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r.0 0 1 . a r t a . 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 .d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8.i M . ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a . p e n g u k me dp u al . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e. r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n . 0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH . n R . ta o r nv . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM . hI ni nc g. 1 9 0. 3. a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . n1t 9 8 5S . e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l. LR .. e n s 1 9 7 9 .pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n . is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a . an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm. i ac s s. .a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a.nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l. A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn. . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k .8 3 3 . e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna .c S2. d 19r .m e n a w a r n y a .n Ian tci o n a . 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ .. J& K o ah n l Rd .s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8. m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr . ar . A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu . a d a s l ea bh 0 . A G. e s s . k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl . 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n . e J sa sk . H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ .

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