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Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir . h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c .. S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t.t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei . a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi.y i 2 2 . a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni .h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto . kr j ei nu n t u n g a n .yi x .h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma. 40 • No. ra n t r= xi . G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s. s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td . aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en.l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :. a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n. ) . rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a.i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e. a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke .i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ).nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np . a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr. m a k a : bi = Xi. 1 9 8 0 ). d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha.Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) . ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i . ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans .i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke . 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a .1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji.

pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a .kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar .s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n. . d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i .d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l .a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky.u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l . a n a . P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e. ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t. 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r .7 4 /h a /th n . s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm.P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g. ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i .a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i. 1 .a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi .yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n ..P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y.i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i . . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g . 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D.eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e . t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e. Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt. f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 .900 0 / h aD / te hn ng . e r t pa em d a a .K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l . dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P.9 d a e ra h . 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2. 4 . 1 . 00 p n . 2 P. P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 . t a a 1 . u l 1 .t . e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n . . a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = .t 5b ru l a n . d i t e R i p 2 a.h 9 7 . 1 P. 3 . p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui .

n u . e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k. d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 .4 a5 i1 o n . i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan.1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g. k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1. td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a.R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g .t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r . a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n.ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr . 9r S e.t i g a . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d .b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa .g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i . 1 .d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad . . rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p .M a l a Fy us ni aug . Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara . P e r . a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 . 6 P. 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 .e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern .

21 25.925. marketing loss c.biaya a. transportasi b.50 265.24 6. transportasi b.90 21.23 3.28 2. Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting .57 5. biaya.15 10. 5.16 134.25 3.Biaya a.075 20. d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .25 40.92 2.Marjin keuntungan .Tabel 1.12 9.76 0. 2.22 6.25 62.67 3.27 0.Biaya a.50 75 ( 7 4 .Marjin keuntungan .64 0.165 369.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .15 1. bea cukai .68 3.075 3. 6. .70 0. Marjin.15 0.22 17.484 . a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a.750.11 0.l a i n .25 6.17 0.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang . marketing loss c.31 3.Biaya a.21 129. p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a . transportasi b.75 2. B i a y a s 7r .35 11. b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol .00 1.750.Marjin keuntungan . bongkar muat . bongkar muat d. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa .925 3.165 27.57 0.49 6.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2.04 7. %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l .Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir . t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 .75 2.51 3.17 1. marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1.9 100 0.52 % 74. transportasi b. %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n . m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n. marketing loss c.marjin keuntungan . bongkar muat . marketing loss c.10 207.47 0.10 0.1 1 . 4. 1 8 r g d (1 6 .P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l .20 4.9 239.H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig. .nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar .76 5.a2 h. bongkar muat .53 0.2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai.95 1. 9 5 .8 5 / k dg e. 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue .10 3669.72 4.

S a e f u d Ad . 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ .s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8. 20 0 ). LR .a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a. i c h 19 r8d 0. a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k .a n d . s 2 .i M . d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn. ta o r nv . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e. e J sa sk . L en. e s s . e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n .1 9 8 1 N .n Ian tci o n a .ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. d a n g k a n ak P i n d R . m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr .c S2. P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y . .m e n a w a r n y a . . y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 .0 0 1 .s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no . . e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a . d 19r .k a r t a . n R . e n s 1 9 7 9 .pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n . 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 . e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l. W J. I n t r o n. is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a .i H a.a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o . 1 9 0. 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r. t a tT i se to idkr ai n o. hI ni nc g.a gta ga. bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l. I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r .a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi .d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8. a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y . a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . . n1t 9 8 5S . . ar . j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e.8 3 3 . o l d b e57 g..y r6a . n k u s s. M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a . a d a s l ea bh 0 . Lr . a r t a . p e n g u k me dp u al . A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k . k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa.. A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u . k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl .. i ac s s. r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n .a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM . H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ . an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm. r9 5 %s . .9 / k g .h 2%. S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n .s 6a1 r0 . 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n .nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . n 1 9 1. J& K o ah n l Rd . 3. A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu .. aSum a t e r a i 02 . 0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH . P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l. A G. h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a .e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 .t oy Hs.

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