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d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha. h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t. m a k a : bi = Xi. 40 • No. G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s. a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke .i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e. rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a. ) .1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni . S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g . a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr.yi x .. ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans . a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi.h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir . 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a .y i 2 2 . ra n t r= xi .h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto . a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji.l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :.i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke . kr j ei nu n t u n g a n .t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei . 1 9 8 0 ).Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol. ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i .Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) .i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ).nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np . aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en. a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n. s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td .

900 0 / h aD / te hn ng . t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e. f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 . pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a . a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e . a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = .u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l . 3 .a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi .P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g.kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar .t 5b ru l a n . 1 . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt.9 d a e ra h . 2 P. 00 p n . 4 . .a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky. ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t. P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e. 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2. t a a 1 . Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk .yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n .d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l .. d i t e R i p 2 a.h 9 7 .P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y. dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P.a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i. 1 .s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n. p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui . s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm. P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 .eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g .i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i .t . a n a .K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D. . . u l 1 . e r t pa em d a a . d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i .7 4 /h a /th n . 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r . 1 P. e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n . ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i .

9r S e. P e r . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d . a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 . 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 . Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara .b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa . a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n.g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i .ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr . k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1. 6 P. 1 . i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan. td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a.t i g a .n u . d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 .4 a5 i1 o n . e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k.R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g .e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern .d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad . .1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g.t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r . rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p .M a l a Fy us ni aug .

57 5.50 75 ( 7 4 .70 0.23 3. bongkar muat .8 5 / k dg e. marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .925 3.50 265. m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n.15 10. transportasi b.95 1.l a i n . 1 8 r g d (1 6 .10 0. d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .47 0.64 0.11 0.25 3. 4.marjin keuntungan . marketing loss c. 2. .Biaya a.35 11. marketing loss c.90 21.1 1 .Biaya a. bongkar muat .68 3. .92 2. transportasi b.15 0.075 3.52 % 74. Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting .53 0.075 20.750. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa .10 207.15 1. a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a. bongkar muat . t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 . marketing loss c. biaya.165 369.00 1.9 239. bea cukai .Tabel 1.20 4.04 7. bongkar muat d.25 6.17 1.Marjin keuntungan . b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol .Marjin keuntungan .76 5.24 6.16 134.25 40. transportasi b.P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l .Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang .25 62. transportasi b. 6.22 6.67 3.49 6. marketing loss c. Marjin. 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue .21 129.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir .28 2.27 0.57 0.10 3669. p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a .Biaya a.925.31 3. 9 5 .72 4.21 25.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2.165 27.a2 h.12 9.51 3.750.17 0.nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar . %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n .76 0.9 100 0.22 17. 5.2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai. B i a y a s 7r .75 2.biaya a. %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l .75 2.H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig.Marjin keuntungan .484 .

a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y . j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e. t a tT i se to idkr ai n o. . i c h 19 r8d 0.m e n a w a r n y a .a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a. s 2 . aSum a t e r a i 02 . 3. o l d b e57 g. H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ . A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u . 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ . I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r . e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l.. an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm. a r t a .a n d .k a r t a .s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8. d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn. . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e.d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8.pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n . A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k .ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. LR . A G.s 6a1 r0 . i ac s s. 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a .. r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n . e s s .nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n . k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl . n R . W J. m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr . 0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH . a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . ..y r6a .n Ian tci o n a . n k u s s. n1t 9 8 5S . P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y .a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t .a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o . p e n g u k me dp u al . a d a s l ea bh 0 . is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a . d 19r . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM .a gta ga. bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l. P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l. hI ni nc g. S a e f u d Ad . S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n .c S2. r9 5 %s . 1 9 0. d a n g k a n ak P i n d R .i M . I n t r o n.1 9 8 1 N .9 / k g . ta o r nv . a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k . k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa.h 2%. Lr . J& K o ah n l Rd . y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 .t oy Hs.0 0 1 .s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no . ar . . e n s 1 9 7 9 . .e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 . e J sa sk . e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna . .. A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu .8 3 3 . h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a . 20 0 ).i H a. e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n . n 1 9 1.a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi . 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r. L en. M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a .

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