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s e ph ea rlpn iey ra s a m a a n : r t Pf = a + b rP D a p r ei r s a t m r as ae kb adu ni td .. ) .y i 2 2 .Yi 2 X1 S e h i nhub gu an g h a a n r pg aa d t ai n g k a (Ptf) dane ht a npr gia atd i na ge k as pt o r t i r g p ( P) . S a m p e l p e n e dl ii tl ai a k nsu e k c apa nur ar p ko es i v e w i l a sy e a nh yt r a a iDes a S i gngga il ni g .1u ) m a m p u m e n y a m p a i k a nh a s i l . g im n S i s t pe em m ad si a n ae nfg i sa ipe n r g a p a mb i el am ed na sur yi h a i yr a ti( t. v k o m o d it a s m u la i d a r i p e ta n i p r o d u s e n s a m p a i k e k o n s u m e n a k h ir . ay l ai s n i sg gak u a n n d i m e l ai pn u a mli i sa i rsp g e i m a y s aa nr g n t n a t e r d i r i d a r i b i a y a pem rans .a a m a r g in i k e u n t un ni sg b aman ha. m a k a : bi = Xi.yi x .Ju rn a lIlm ia hPerta n ian U LT U R A Vol. 1 9 8 0 ).t u u n tK u a k b u Dp a Dti reei . 2 • Septem b er K • 2005 m e m pu ea rntoug l nem ah ei pl a e l n ij u a l a n u h a s iln y a s e b a g a i u p a y a m e m e n u h i k e b u hitd uu hkp a nl u a mr g a ag k na a yi r a .h a s i l d a r i p e tpa rno i d ku e s pe kanod na s ud m n e g n a n e b i a s ye am u r a hd -am(n2 u ) ma a m ypa u r h n m e n g a p d e a mk ab nya ag ni a g dn di l a r i k e s e lh u a r yru gah anda ginb ak y a rs u m e n on a k kh ei rp sa ed ma p ui h aya a k nt eg li akut h s e r t a d a la m k e g ia t a n p r o d u k s i d a n p e mran a s a b a ra n g te rs e b u t(M u b y a rto . aa i P e n e lit ia n in i d ila k s a n a k a n m gg nu an a k e n p e n d e k a ta n “a p a y a n g t e r j(whatd hi ” a p schoe on( lC) r a dma e r a p s n J e n s 1 9 7 9d ) e n gs au nr m eel iusn u e r i en. a r K o e fk i os ir (r) n. 40 • No.nM a e ur en kt u k s K a b u p a te n K a ro S e d a n g k a n sa m p e l p e d a dg iat n tg a cepar ka ac cn iald de in t e s a p a s a rt -i pn agk ske aac rta mk a bt au np . ra n t r= xi . rT i n rg e g n i d h ah yrn gay ana g te a d i t e rp i em t ae nr ai t kd ae i nt ag na nn y a k e a ds uk r at pun ar ds a brn e s am r n ry ga i n ta a p e mran a. a t e n d a pn r o pA i nl a s tni . G e ja la r e n d a h n y a h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t p nr oiend u rs ka at i t a n n y a a e d e n gk ae na dpem asaran y a nk gu r a n g a an e f i s hi eai nl s.i I = k e u n tl eu m gpema ngranas a n ba a t i nat gi k mj = t o mt a inl rp ge mran a s a a = h a pr ga atd i na eg k sa pt o r t i r Pr Pf = h a pr ga tad i na g e atp atr no id u s e n p k U n tau n k an l i s bms a ah rk ge i un n ts ue nc mg aa ant e.i P i s = h a jr ug leam l ga ap e m at i sn ag r ka a n t a b k e -i Pbi = h a br geleml i b a ge am at i sn a g r ka an t a p k e -i b i t = b i ap ye am alems agb r apa en m a s a r a n a t i nat gk ke .i e r di ni tgu n dj ue kn k g a a n n g e j besl rny a m a r pg ei nm a ds a nr a n a aa s t r u pk sart u yr a n t da k a t a k uu r a n g a gi b e r s ae imn gp( Au zr zn 198n 2o ).h e p e t ua nn timu ke n i n pg rk oa ddt ka akn n i u s m u kt u n ty angn dg i h a s isl ka an ng na yt a e a d i t e n ot ul e kt hi an ngr eg ni d ah ha nr yg a y a dn igma. a t a u mji = b i + I t I = m ji – bti t o mt a al pr ge i mran aada al a h : n s mj = m ji. d ma pad ai it tsu ls i es kb aa ng a i i a r t I b e r= u t: ik bti ( U ah nl Kd o 1 9 . h 80 l B a hd aa Mn e t o d a n D e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nm o d e l p e n d u g a r e gl i rn ese e a id r e (OL Sm n ea s)t h o d s rh a ⎨ = b o+ b 1+ c . a p a t k a n e an k o e f ik s oi er en l a s i a n t aPf r d a nPr. ss ea h i un ng tgmu a ke n i n g k a t k a n p e mran a pet aa nk ie n tda an pdg ai ct a p a i s a p a b ila s t r u k t u r p a s a r d a n p e n y e b a b t i n g m i an pry gea saran ad i k e t a h u i .l aa ns Pf ad r aaPndapat ee ti d i d u g a d e n g a n m e n g g u n a k a nf o r m u l a ( S u p 19 8 5 o) :. a t aPr–u Pf K e nge ar a : t n m i = m a pr ga ilde am pb ea m aa s a r a n j n g t i nat gk ke . a n ak l oi s r hies al adr gsa aian n a e l li as is s t i s i t a s t r a n h s amyr gai sai iet ub ba eg r ai ki u t : m i j= P i s– Pbi. kr j ei nu n t u n g a n .

900 0 / h aD / te hn ng .t 5b ru l a n .yg nga lann gg s u n g a a b e r h u db eu n gg a nnpa rno i d du as ne n p et p e d a y g a a h n a g nb ye ar h u db eu nn gg aa nn n g p e d a p g e a n n g g du kim e pc a m a t a n . e r t pa em d a a . 2 i h1 ad e n jga art an n 2 0x 6 0 t f k a m c m a t a4 u0 x 7 0 c m D. ta u nd gi b u t du ah rk i a n p e n a ns a m p aa nn s iee nk3 i . pa a P r o ivid t ua rks at t a 1 r 0a33 a784 k g / h a . .eaa nndgge n g u a a n s k l e f e0 k. .kp epu en d b eg asa nn kotrg at ar . 1 . a n a . 00 / k m a p ae n e r i m a a n r m 9 g k t o at ad laR l p2. 1 . e t a n i P e ta n i k e n ta n g d i p e n e b l iet ir al an dnt.a st ai yn ngi a d g i pa e r a n k a n a m e r e k a um u m n y a a d a la h s o r t a s i.P e d a Bg ea s n a gr P e d a bgsara yn a g nt egbar dlt i a l a m e t a t a nk ei a n g t ta e nr adg t i atrig is a y.h 9 7 . t a a 1 . 00 p n . dng a bg ea si naai rd da u a m cam P. s u d ma hadi n p j e r p a nt aj an ngd gaa anr ni e A nisi as el l a s t ir s a i tn a s shm a dir s gi ig a u n ua nk tam n ke n g g a r me sb pha oar nkr ga an u s ul y l k e n t da int ign gp ke at ap nr oi dk ua sr pe en ra u bh aa hdr git ia n ge k as m o e r lt ai rl u p i e n g ud me np gb ae nr bm e ok da al n g t a n pt i n f o hr m rUag nsa itm. ko k w i l aK ya adr ha Dai r umu mya nm e r e k a o n i b e r d od mB ri as idss tal aiMn g e i d Ra an t. 5 A g e n p o d r atE n rk s p o r t i r .d a p a t j u g a a e h b e r d a p s ea r rmk pi nn t da aa ran at inn gg ae gn a t pa eu mian bp ee rd ap ge an ng gu m p u l . f b Pr H a ds ai Pn e m b a h a s a n l 1 .. t sn pn k o e f i s i ye an nr keg on rad auta l m s e i n dn eom kl e tn i u n j u k k ha un b n g a n e h a a P e d a i n b ai e n r gk e d uid e sum ak e. 2 P.u ke n g lh a i st ut i ns igtrta a ns s m ai sr dig i ag u n a k a n d i b e r i k a n o l e h p e n g u m p u l . P e d a bg ea sni nagmr e mp ei l ir kya ian n g i s a n bg ea std a a r l ap me m b e hn at ur gk a n k e n t Tapei n pg e. 1 P. a i t u p e d a b gsara an ngkt ao rp a e .7 4 /h a /th n .t .P e d a Pg e a nnpul u m gg P e d a g a n g ini m e r u p a k a nin d u k p e d a ranti an nd ge ys a n g r k e d u d u k a n g g be a t ab ue r da as k ar ei l c a ms e a n tada t inar iu l a i n Fn uy na t g.9 d a e ra h . B i a py rao dy ua kn sg pi e ra l du akR lap nh d i a 1 923 060 0ha/ d e n gr aa tn ah a nry g a a n g . . d a bg ea sn a g r e t k o Mt a e d da anpn e d a bg ea spn arg or p i n s i . u l 1 . d i t e R i p 2 a. P e l Pa e m a s a r a n k u 1 .a t i a h p e k Wt a a r ky.K e nge a r a : t n Xi = h a dr gti i an pg ekni at at Yi = h a dr tgi i an kg ok n st u m e n / e k s p o r t i r a d e m ik ia n b e s a r n y a p e n d a p a t a n b e r s ih p e t a nr oi d ua sd ea Rl ap h1 0 48 . e dnga Desa aRan ing g / t U m u m n y a p e la k u p e m a s a r a nin i m K o e f i ks oi e r nye ngla a s i t i n m g e i r u p ian k d a i kn k a e t eo r a t am n e m ptip u eyn ay nsa agi n a g k a t ti fe n c a r i g h u b uh na prg ga adnke a d ut i an gp ka a(s kta e r dp ua ats e a r ri n seme gp rua rSebi aa ) l . a i r a vt ao l u e mk se ap do ar6tl 7 0t o n / b u l a n a h d e n g a n n gar a e t u ju a n S in g a p u r a d a n f o r m u la : K e nge a r a : t n nj = E l a st tr ias ni ht saambsr =saKi o e Rf i es ige rn e s i gi Pf = H a dr gti i an p e atp atr no id u s e n g k Pr = H a dr gti i an eg k sa pt o r t i r 1 P nj = .i k n yp a a s ok ke an nts aa nm gk pel a di a e tg a n i . 3 .s uengnr ki a l i p n p e t ap nr oi d ua sk ei pbn ea rt s e n t a s he a pr ged ari ut ibn ag hkk aoa nt s au km h ei r n.a r ne k a g d p a s t ai drt ae kr i n t e g Er al as si t i s i t a s t r a n sh ma mr i gs eia r u per as ke anp nt ea rs u e bh aa hrd gtai i an g k a dt a pb ae tr t si ne dn ad kai r mi . 4 . p e n g e m a s a n d a la m k e r ng n j a a d an t r a n s bp a od i rkam ra i as ui . e n gd ae nm i k i a n j u m p l oa ph u laa ds ai1l 1y5ha5 rum p u n n . Eks i B a ik a g e n e k s p o r t ir m a u p u n e k s p o r t ir u m u m n y a b e r k e d u d u k a nd i i i b u propi nt asd i a n a b u pU an t teu nk .

.t i g a . i n g p e n y im p a n a n d a n pengem asan. 1 . k Sub-Sistem Pemasaran Kentang segar Sub-Sistem Pengolahan Kripik Dalam Negeri Sub Sistem Pra Produksi Dalam Negeri Luar Negeri Pdg Desa Eksportir Pengecer Merek Dagang Pdg Pengumpul Pdg Besar (I) Grosir (II) Grosir (III) Eksportir Pengecer Pengecer Konsumen Sumatera utara Kosumen Jakarta/Jawa Konsumen Luar Negeri Gambar 1.e e a d a an k h ki rekn oy na s ua m hKe iern . 6 P. td i keo oxn m o i nd i t a s Sub-sistem Produksi b e r sk ei sb a9 r 9 a. e n g o l a h P e l ap ke un gp o a l dam a a r ta a n t a i h t a t a kn nta a n gbg ae n o t l ua k(h k ar nd p i i k ) ei i M e dP ar o pS iun ms Ui a t t pe rar atad a a h u n n a 2 0 0 2 e r cb ae t r aj ut9 m p al k. a ca 2 t p P r o p in s i 2 .n u .d a lsar an e k s p o r t i r s e l a n j u t n y a die k s p o r m e l a l u i p e l a b Bu eh l a nwKe ad . rs o dk ue krk i ntpai i nk g a se b a m u e n c5a 1p .M a l a Fy us ni aug .1 2 5t o bn a hb aa nk e n tDa en ng g.R a nPemasaai r a n t A d a t ig a r a n t a i p e m a s a r a n k e n t a n g . Skema saluran tataniaga kentang di Sumatera Utara . 2 t5n s e t de r na g a n r a io a 1 2 . ts ai m a a nd gi jnk al a n y a a d a l a h gra d . a n 8 u d e m i rk ei at en i n. P e r . 9r S e.4 a5 i1 o n .b hnr ai m u n t a b a n uy sa akr hu am tana gh gy a nbeg l u m t e r cK apast ai t tpa . d a n g osi da un k es 5 p r k k e s e l u r u h a nk e n t a n g s e g a r d i S u m Ua t t me r reaa n 2 5 .ma u dl a a i r i p e t a n oi d uk es pe uan st p a s t ai nr .t a m a dar i p e ta n i k e pe da ga n g p e n g u pme p ub ge a-gen ge k s p o r t i r .g k a t p r k a b u p a t e n d i l aann j u t k ke p u sa t p a sa r p r o p edn as n k() M m uk dp i e n g e c e r i i .

nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang besar Harga jual pedagang besar .57 0.8 5 / k dg e.21 129.25 6. %) p r o d r ua kt asy i-a r da git ka e l pu ea tr ak na in n a d a2 l .90 21. 5. marketing loss c.31 3. p R a n p t ea m a ss ea br ab nga ah ia n i b a k u k r i p i k c u k u p s e d e r h a n a .04 7.1 1 .70 0.95 1.17 1.76 0.23 3.25 3. Marjin.57 5.l a i n .35 11.16 134.biaya a. 9 5 .25 62.17 0.75 2.68 3.67 3. marketing loss c.53 0.k a m e l a k u k a n p e nan j u a l la n g s u n g k e k o n s u m e n .22 6. biaya.15 0. n d e m s i hk ai a r ne 67 gan p e t a nd ia sl ae hb eR s pa .H a s i l o l a h a n n y a b e r ku rp i dpa ii dk i s t rmi b e u tl sao ilkku oai n p e ner g b e a c r u k o nk se u Pm a eb j unr ig.50 75 ( 7 4 .075 20. marketing loss c.00 1.Nisbah marjin keuntungan “Free on Board” Rp/Kg 2.27 0.750.Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli eksportir Harga jual eksportir . bongkar muat d.75 2. .Biaya a.Marjin keuntungan . b a n dd i en ng gk aa n k s h a r e p e d a g a n g p e ump gu l n m u la i d a r i p e t pa rn o i d su as m nk p o a n i s u a mk he inr e j u m i lna ti he r g or laelt oi fkn eg cT i ol .Biaya a. .2 r k o n s ua m Jhiekidrnai.10 207. d a ri p e ta n i p ro d u s e n k e p e d a g a n g p e n g u m a pt raua iul ng yt a dbnermu aa r a n egs k e a ks a br u p a t e n .Marjin keuntungan .925.165 369.20 4. marketing loss c. %) N i s b a h mar j i n k e u n tu n g a np a d a m a -mai nnggi t i n gl e k ma tbp ae gm a a s a r a n s s m e n y tide ab km r e rma te a n g g a m b a r k a n a a d a n y a k e s e n j a n g a n tin g k a t k e p u a s a n d i a nl et am r abp ae gm a a ( sS aa re a f ne u d d i n .925 3. 6.92 2. 4.165 27. 2. bongkar muat .750.P a b r i k p e n g mo l ea m p b e a r ho bal ean hkd ua r i h p e d a g a n g p e n g u m p u l .72 4.11 0.10 0.51 3. transportasi b.a2 h. 8 8t i a p r k i l o ga rt as m k 1i t3a 1 % d a h r ai r g a ue .76 5.marjin keuntungan .12 9.49 6.28 2.25 40.21 25.64 0.15 1. transportasi b. Uraian Harga jual petani produsen Harga beli pedagang Desa Harga jual pedagang Desa/Ranting .075 3.22 17.50 265.10 3669.Biaya a. bea cukai . marjin keuntungan dan nisbah marjin keuntungan pada tataniaga kentang dari petani produsen sampai ke eksportir (saluran I) Tahun 2003 No 1.24 6.Marjin keuntungan . m is a ln y a m e la lu i f o r u m p a m de ar l an ni n.52 % 74. a D a T r ai b1 e d l a pd ai l tibh aa ht w a n i lt au i ny aa i nd gi t e pr ie mt paa rn o i d u s e n a d as le a b hRe p2 a.15 10.484 . bongkar muat .Nisbah marjin keuntungan Harga beli pedagang Harga jual pedagang . transportasi b.47 0. B i a y a s 7r .9 239. bongkar muat . transportasi b. 1 8 r g d (1 6 . t a l s h aped e a g pa en ng pul ua m a 5l a9 h1 .9 100 0.Tabel 1.

h u b u an ng t aa nr a aa 1 p a ps ar or d du as pne a n ks o nr s kurau mn gs i a . aSum a t e r a i 02 . J& K o ah n l Rd .d u n t i o m e n is n e g b k e aps8. ar .i H a. 1 B e r d a s a r k a ns e m u a h a s i l a n a l i s i s y a n g S u p r aJ . 0 9 e 4 D a P t ua sr t a k a f / k gH . a n lmi e n ua j d a p k eay nn u r u n a n i ukn a m a kr je i nu n t pu an dtg i ana gp ke ad ta g a n g n B a d Pa un s Sa t ta t 2s 0t i k . . s e p e rti p a sd i as tpem m a s ka e r na dtn aadnr aig e r a h e f u n g s ki o e n l oa mi s pida oas kin oer pa s i ltan s e n p t r oa d mu ke sn i ym e eb ra a r t a .ag t a k t ue r ae nr aSg te. bas h m a kr j ei nu n t u an ng g n ) i y a t e r i n t e g r a s i secr a a v e r t ik a l. a b e np t au osk la i gr o ap t smo u on sonis os t tipki k a ni M a r ko eAf tg i nr i gcP ur ol t du ur ac tl s . p e n g u k me dp u al .nj i k p e n u r u n a n d a U t aD r aa lAa nm g2k0a 0 2 . d t d a n n o r m a l p r o f i t ( P y n d i c k .s e n t r a p r o d k ue kn s tdi a iS n u g m Ua t eat ir da a k m e n c e r m i n k a ns t r u k t u r p a s a r m e n j u r u s p a d a o l isog no . e n s 1 9 7 9 . r j gu a l A g r ic u lt u r a l E c o n o m ic s a n d k e n t da i nt i gnp ge kt ap tnr oi d ua sk ea n A g r u b is in e s s A n . . a r t a . m a r g i n k unt u n g a n e t e r s e b u t d ia lih k a n C r a mG e. 3. W J. e u p e d a p g e a n n g g ku em da pud uaa2l l.n Ian tci o n a . ta o r nv . . m a k a a g da a r pm a et m b a ndat au l iua pm a y a pe t n n i s b ma h rk g e i n n t pu an dgt iaan ng k a t a u m e m p o tsr aki sw i aa tr . S a e f u d Ad . d 19r . y a i t u s e b e s a r 6 . n k u s s.1 9 8 1 N . a cI nh su t si te uo t tft es y k M s T e c h n o lo g y .y r6a . d i p e t re o r l dep ahe pt uaa ntd j au pnk ey r a i l a k u A p l i Ek ra l sa iJn. A G. A d a n y a e k s p lo it a s ih a r g a y a n g d i la k u k a n o le h t e r ba ed sapa l ar dhp ae d a pg ngu n mg p u l ea k e d u a . r9 5 %s .k a r t a .. i ac s s. n 1 9 1..s 6a1 r0 . 1 9 0. e s s . e d a k n u r ea f ni sg i e n .i M . .a gta ga. 8 P e n g a n ta r E k o n o m i s e b 0 . L en.9 / k g . 20 0 ). d a n g k a n ak P i n d R .. ips t i k B a g ia n h a r g a y a n g d i t e pr iem t a nr oi d um s ae rsnei hn d a h p y a i st eu b e3s 4a . a d a s l ea bh 0 .a n d . o l d b e57 g. t a tT i se to idkr ai n o.s 6a 1r 2 C i ru i t a pm a a s a r e 8. 2 H a l in i p e d a pg ea n g uk m dpmuu ael rimk ab ne e m e n u n ju k k a n a d a n y a p e n g a m b ila n p e t u n ju k b a h w a p r o d u s e n le m b a g a k e u n t yu an nbg gea r nl e( tb i id hw a aak nj a r ) p e m a d s aa knr oa n s ub me re ad n da al a m o le h ped ag an g pen g um pu l ked ua s t r up ka yts ua rtnr i gd ber ks a si ne pum r n a a g ( K e c a m y aa tis at eun b ) e6 s2 a3rp rse n . k l e m b a g a p e m a s a r a ny a n g b e r a d a p a d a U hNl .0 0 1 . i c r o e c Fo i nfE t odh mM . P r e n t ic e H a ll n i l ka oi e f ei sl ai e s ntt ri sa int has m r igs ai a s I n t e r l. LR .a2 hd2 a n m a rk ge i un n t u sn eg ba Rn spn a. .a t e S c h o Bof u s i An de m s i n i s t U aivet or snBi .. an J a n t a r a t in g k a t e k s p o r t ir d e n g a n h a r g a t i n gf rm.a 3r 1 5/ k ag t ha au r g a R t . k e p pa ed tapa rn o i d um s ae hkn aa. e J sa sk .pt aa md aa g d i a s u mn iss i bkma ha r kg ei nu n t u n g a n n t in g k a t p e ta n i p ro d u s e n . 8 P e n g k a jia n P e m a s a r a n p e r s as ie n mg apa nud raf nr l iean ehf o r m a t i o n K o m o U iI P i r. A C o n c eA p g t r i b u sG i nr ae ds u .t oy Hs. H a s i l a n a l i s i s s t a t i s t i k a D a vJ . n R . e 5 A r t ihn uy ba u hn ag rag n a P e r t LP3 iEa Sna .h 2%. n1t 9 8 5S . S a sl aa ih tn u d iek fai st oi e r un asn itysu at e m s S a ra n p e mran a ada a l a mh e r a pt ney ba y r a n s a ne P e n g l ue am t apb nea drg li alu a k u k a n n is b a h m a r g in k e u n t u n g a n . i c h 19 r8d 0. hI ni nc g.a r d l s r n d i p e n lrai o k l oe eh fk i os ir ee nada sl ai nh y a la M u b y a r t o . is S tru k tu r p a s a r sent r a . . A p a b ila d a l a m r i bk ie s nn ti tas e n r gu . M a lac n i l m K e s im p u la n P u b l C. j u ka el n dt ati i nn gp e atp atr no i d R p e. P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y .c S2.e d a n p gfir t ko a n s h a ra ed na1yl 3 . Lr .m e n a w a r n y a . I n t r o n. s 2 . I OWA S t aU t ne iPv r .8 3 3 .

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