u. u.

Su0HARH0t0 Su0HARH0t0, ,
SKFP SKFP
AtAT0Hl-FlSl0l06l
HATA
% %
Struktur Struktur Mata: Mata:
1. 1. Internal Internal
2. 2. Eksternal Eksternal
8TRUKTUR |NTERNAL 8TRUKTUR |NTERNAL
0|areler oo|a rala : 0|areler oo|a rala :
|urarg |eo|r 2,5 cr. |urarg |eo|r 2,5 cr.
Ter|ela| pada oag|ar Ter|ela| pada oag|ar
arler|or oro|l. arler|or oro|l.
Terd|r| dar| : Terd|r| dar| :
1. 1. Lap|sar Luar. Lap|sar Luar.
2. 2. Lap|sar Tergar. Lap|sar Tergar.
3. 3. Lap|sar 0a|ar. Lap|sar 0a|ar.
A. A. Lap|san Lap|san Luar Luar
erupa|ar |a|psar l|orous erupa|ar |a|psar l|orous
yarg reryargga rala, lerd|r| yarg reryargga rala, lerd|r|
dar| : 3||era dar Korrea. dar| : 3||era dar Korrea.
3KLERA 3KLERA
Jar|rgar padal, oerWarra Jar|rgar padal, oerWarra
pul|r. pul|r.
ererpal| 5/ê oag|ar ererpal| 5/ê oag|ar
posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a rala. posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a rala.
Pada orarg deWasa alau Pada orarg deWasa alau
|ars|a, depos|l |era| dapal |ars|a, depos|l |era| dapal
reroer||ar Warra |ur|rg reroer||ar Warra |ur|rg
pada s||era. pada s||era.
K0RNEA K0RNEA
Lap|sar padal, avas|u|er dar Lap|sar padal, avas|u|er dar
lrarsparar yarg oersarourg lrarsparar yarg oersarourg
dergar s||era. dergar s||era.
ererpal| 1/ê oag|ar arler|or ererpal| 1/ê oag|ar arler|or
d|rd|rg oo|a rala dergar d|rd|rg oo|a rala dergar
d|areler ||ra d|areler ||ra--||ra 11 rr. ||ra 11 rr.
,3:9,3 ,3:9,3
Korrea Korrea |arjular |arjular dar| dar|
s||era s||era, , lelap| lelap| |eo|r |eo|r leoa| leoa|. .
L|rous L|rous : : Perleruar Perleruar
|orrea |orrea dergar dergar s||era s||era. .
Ar|us Ar|us ser|||s ser|||s : : C|rc|r C|rc|r pul|r pul|r
pada pada pada pada ||rous ||rous a||oal a||oal
adarya adarya degereras| degereras| |era| |era|
pada pada |ars|a |ars|a. .
Kornea Kornea tersusun tersusun atas atas 5 5 |ap|san |ap|san ::
1. 1. Ep|le||ur Ep|le||ur. .
2. 2. erorara erorara 8oWrar. 8oWrar.
3. 3. 3lrora 3lrora. .
1. 1. erorara erorara 0escererl 0escererl. .
5. 5. Erdole||ur Erdole||ur. .
. . Lap|san Lap|san Tengah Tengah
&vea, |ap|sar |edua dar| &vea, |ap|sar |edua dar|
oo|a rala, rerupa|ar oo|a rala, rerupa|ar
|ap|sar oervas|u|er dar |ap|sar oervas|u|er dar
oerp|grer. oerp|grer.
Lap|sar |r| oer|s| : Koro|d, Lap|sar |r| oer|s| : Koro|d,
8adar s|||ar dar lr|s. 8adar s|||ar dar lr|s.
K0R0l0 K0R0l0
erorar co||al lua, ler|ela| arlara s||era dar erorar co||al lua, ler|ela| arlara s||era dar
rel|ra. rel|ra.
8ag|ar leroesar dar| |ap|sar lergar, d||ap|s| o|er 8ag|ar leroesar dar| |ap|sar lergar, d||ap|s| o|er
seoag|ar oesar s||era. seoag|ar oesar s||era.
8er|s| oarya| perou|ur darar yarg reryup|a| 8er|s| oarya| perou|ur darar yarg reryup|a|
rulr|er |e rel|ra dar oadar v|lreus. rulr|er |e rel|ra dar oadar v|lreus.
ercegar rel|e|s| |rlerra| caraya. ercegar rel|e|s| |rlerra| caraya.
8A0AN (K0RP&3) 3lLlARE 8A0AN (K0RP&3) 3lLlARE
ergruourg|ar |oro|d ergruourg|ar |oro|d
dergar |r|s. dergar |r|s.
Pada perru|aar da|ar |orpus Pada perru|aar da|ar |orpus
s|||are lerdapal prosesus s|||ar|s s|||are lerdapal prosesus s|||ar|s
yarg rergras|||ar a|ueos yarg rergras|||ar a|ueos
ruror re|a|u| proses d|a||s|s ruror re|a|u| proses d|a||s|s
dar se|res|. dar se|res|.
Prosesus |r| oarya| Prosesus |r| oarya|
rergardurg perou|ur darar rergardurg perou|ur darar
dar seraoul saral. dar seraoul saral.
lRl3 lRl3
Perparjargar |orpus Perparjargar |orpus
s|||are |e arler|or dar s|||are |e arler|or dar
rerupa|ar oag|ar rala rerupa|ar oag|ar rala
yarg oerWarra serla yarg oerWarra serla
rerarpa||ar rerarpa||ar
|ara|ler|sl|| o|ru, r|jau, |ara|ler|sl|| o|ru, r|jau,
raze|, aou raze|, aou--aou alau aou alau
co|e|al. co|e|al.
Pup||÷Ter|ela| Pup||÷Ter|ela| d|depar d|depar
|ersa |ersa, , d| d| oe|a|arg oe|a|arg |orrea |orrea, ,
dar dar reroerlu| reroerlu| ||rg|arar ||rg|arar
lerou|a lerou|a
3aal 3aal |rd|v|du |rd|v|du lerjaga lerjaga, ,
u|urar u|urar pup|| pup|| oervar|as| oervar|as|
sesua| sesua| jur|ar jur|ar caraya caraya
yarg yarg rasu| rasu|. .
lr|s reroag| secara pars|a| ruarg yarg oer|s| a|ueous lr|s reroag| secara pars|a| ruarg yarg oer|s| a|ueous
ruror arlara |orrea dar |ersa rerjad| 2 oag|ar ya|lu: ruror arlara |orrea dar |ersa rerjad| 2 oag|ar ya|lu:
Karera Arler|or dar Karera Posler|or. Karera Arler|or dar Karera Posler|or.
8ag|ar a|ar |r|s re|e|al pada perru|aar oadar s|||er. 8ag|ar a|ar |r|s re|e|al pada perru|aar oadar s|||er.
Pada l|l|| per|e|alar |r| |r|s re|al|l l|p|s ser|rgga dapal Pada l|l|| per|e|alar |r| |r|s re|al|l l|p|s ser|rgga dapal
rooe| |arera lraura pada rala. rooe| |arera lraura pada rala.
Furgs| |r|s: rergalur jur|ar caraya yarg rasu| |e rala. Furgs| |r|s: rergalur jur|ar caraya yarg rasu| |e rala.
. . Lap|san Lap|san 0a|am 0a|am
RETlNA RETlNA
3lru|lur l|p|s, ra|us dar 3lru|lur l|p|s, ra|us dar
oer|rg lerpal seral oer|rg lerpal seral--seral seral
saral opl|| d|d|slr|ous||ar. saral opl|| d|d|slr|ous||ar.
e|ap|s| oag|ar da|ar 2/3 e|ap|s| oag|ar da|ar 2/3
posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a
rala. rala.
3ecara e|slerra| d|oalas| 3ecara e|slerra| d|oalas|
o|er |oro|d dar s||era. o|er |oro|d dar s||era.
3ecara |rlerra| d|oalas| 3ecara |rlerra| d|oalas|
o|er rerorar o|er rerorar
r|a|o|dea dar| oadar r|a|o|dea dar| oadar
v|lreus. v|lreus.
8er|s| perou|ur darar 8er|s| perou|ur darar
yarg reryup|a| rulr|s| yarg reryup|a| rulr|s|
|e jar|rgar rel|ra dar |e jar|rgar rel|ra dar
dua |e|as loloreseplor dua |e|as loloreseplor
yarg d|seoul yarg d|seoul rnoo rnoo
(oalarg) dar (oalarg) dar oones oones
(|erucul). (|erucul).
Rl00 : Rl00 :
1. 1. 8erlurgs| rergurarg| derajal ||ur|ras| (lerarg) 8erlurgs| rergurarg| derajal ||ur|ras| (lerarg)
dar oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap pardargar dar oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap pardargar
per|ler. per|ler.
2. 2. 0|gura|ar apao||a |rlers|las caraya rerdar dar 0|gura|ar apao||a |rlers|las caraya rerdar dar
reroer||ar garoarar aou reroer||ar garoarar aou--aou. aou.
3. 3. 3argal oarya| d| oag|ar depar rel|ra. 3argal oarya| d| oag|ar depar rel|ra.
1. 1. erguoar rargsarg caraya rerjad| |rpu|s ||slr|| erguoar rargsarg caraya rerjad| |rpu|s ||slr||
yarg oerja|ar separjarg seraoul saral sersor|s yarg oerja|ar separjarg seraoul saral sersor|s
reruju daerar perg||ralar d| ola|. reruju daerar perg||ralar d| ola|.
&rlu| lurgs| |r| d|per|u|ar &rlu| lurgs| |r| d|per|u|ar rooops|n rooops|n (sualu (sualu
seryaWa yarg lersusur alas prole|r dar p|grer seryaWa yarg lersusur alas prole|r dar p|grer
|arolera). |arolera).
8||a lerpapar caraya, seryaWa |r| a|ar pecar 8||a lerpapar caraya, seryaWa |r| a|ar pecar
dar p|grer d|uoar rerjad| v|lar|r A. dar p|grer d|uoar rerjad| v|lar|r A.
Pada |eadaar ge|ap, rodops|r d|res|rles|s dar| Pada |eadaar ge|ap, rodops|r d|res|rles|s dar|
v|lar|r A dar prole|r, reryeoao|ar |epe|aar v|lar|r A dar prole|r, reryeoao|ar |epe|aar
rnoo rnoo rer|rg|al dar d|serla| adarya pe|eoarar pup|| rer|rg|al dar d|serla| adarya pe|eoarar pup||
(rerurg||r|ar |eo|r oarya| caraya yarg rasu| (rerurg||r|ar |eo|r oarya| caraya yarg rasu|
|e da|ar rala) reryeoao|ar seseorarg dapal |e da|ar rala) reryeoao|ar seseorarg dapal
oeradaplas| pada |eadaar ge|ap. oeradaplas| pada |eadaar ge|ap.
Adaplas| lerradap caraya lerarg d|seoao|ar o|er Adaplas| lerradap caraya lerarg d|seoao|ar o|er
perecarar rodops|r yarg reryeoao|ar perecarar rodops|r yarg reryeoao|ar
pergurargar |epe|aar pergurargar |epe|aar rnoo rnoo d|serla| dergar d|serla| dergar
pergec||ar pup|| yarg reroalas| oarya|rya pergec||ar pup|| yarg reroalas| oarya|rya
caraya yarg rerasu|| rala. caraya yarg rerasu|| rala.
C0NE : C0NE :
1. 1. 8erlurgs| rer|rg|al|ar derajal ||ur|ras| dar 8erlurgs| rer|rg|al|ar derajal ||ur|ras| dar
oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap perg||ralar serlra| oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap perg||ralar serlra|
dar perg||ralar Warra. dar perg||ralar Warra.
Terdapal |urarg |eo|r 110 Terdapal |urarg |eo|r 110 - - 125 jula rrod dar 125 jula rrod dar
|urarg |eo|r ê,5 jula core pada salu rel|ra. |urarg |eo|r ê,5 jula core pada salu rel|ra.
F&N0&3 0PTlK F&N0&3 0PTlK
Ter|ela| pada oag|ar Ter|ela| pada oag|ar
posler|or rala. posler|or rala.
0|da|arrya lerdapal 0|da|arrya lerdapal
d|s|us opl||us yarg d|s|us opl||us yarg
rerupa|ar daerar rerupa|ar daerar
oerWarra pul|r rerar oerWarra pul|r rerar
ruda ruda--|rer pada rel|ra. |rer pada rel|ra.
0|s|us opl|| |adarg 0|s|us opl|| |adarg--
|adarg d|seoul seoaga| |adarg d|seoul seoaga|
l|l|| oula ( l|l|| oula (-|no spor -|no spor) )
|arera rarya |arera rarya
rergardurg seraoul saral rergardurg seraoul saral
larpa se| larpa se|--se| loloreseplor se| loloreseplor
dar l|da| sers|l|l lerradap dar l|da| sers|l|l lerradap
s|rar. s|rar.
Pada oag|ar |alera| dar Pada oag|ar |alera| dar
lerpora| d|s|us opl|| lerpora| d|s|us opl||
lerdapal area |ec||, ova|, lerdapal area |ec||, ova|,
rerar ruda |e|ur|rgar rerar ruda |e|ur|rgar
yarg d|seoul ra|u|a |ulea yarg d|seoul ra|u|a |ulea
(o|rl|| |ur|rg) oerd|areler (o|rl|| |ur|rg) oerd|areler
1 rr, rerupa|ar daerar 1 rr, rerupa|ar daerar
yarg pa||rg je|as urlu| yarg pa||rg je|as urlu|
re||ral. re||ral.
8ag|ar serlra| ra|u|a 8ag|ar serlra| ra|u|a
yarg aga| |e da|ar yarg aga| |e da|ar
d|seoul lovea serlra||s d|seoul lovea serlra||s
lerpal lerjad| pardargar lerpal lerjad| pardargar
a|ul leroesar. J||a oag|ar a|ul leroesar. J||a oag|ar
|r| rusa|, lajar |r| rusa|, lajar
perg||ralar ( perg||ralar (,ou|ry ,ou|ry) )
oer|urarg dar dapal oer|urarg dar dapal
lerjad| |eoulaar serlra|. lerjad| |eoulaar serlra|.
E0|A REFRAKT|F E0|A REFRAKT|F
Ja|arrya ge|oroarg caraya |e rel|ra a|ar re|a|u| Ja|arrya ge|oroarg caraya |e rel|ra a|ar re|a|u|
slru|lur dergar |epadalar yarg oervar|as|, slru|lur dergar |epadalar yarg oervar|as|,
re||pul|: Korrea, A|ueos ruror, Lersa dar v|lreus re||pul|: Korrea, A|ueos ruror, Lersa dar v|lreus
lurour. lurour.
3el|ap slru|lur reryeoao|ar ge|oroarg caraya 3el|ap slru|lur reryeoao|ar ge|oroarg caraya
rero|as alau relra|s| sarpa| oeoerapa derajal. rero|as alau relra|s| sarpa| oeoerapa derajal.
3lru|lur |r| d|seoul 3lru|lur |r| d|seoul 2eo|, relr,r|l 2,r, 2eo|, relr,r|l 2,r,
K0RNEA K0RNEA
Lap|sar padal dar Lap|sar padal dar
lrarsparar, oersarourg lrarsparar, oersarourg
dergar s||era, rererpal| dergar s||era, rererpal|
1/ê oag|ar arler|or rala. 1/ê oag|ar arler|or rala.
AK&E03 l&0R AK&E03 l&0R
Ca|rar jerr|r yarg rerg|s| ruarg arler|or dar Ca|rar jerr|r yarg rerg|s| ruarg arler|or dar
posler|or rala. posler|or rala.
Korpos|s| serupa dergar p|asra lelap| rer||||| Korpos|s| serupa dergar p|asra lelap| rer|||||
|orserlras| as|oroal, p|ruval dar |a|lal yarg |eo|r |orserlras| as|oroal, p|ruval dar |a|lal yarg |eo|r
l|rgg| serla prole|r, urea dar g|u|osa yarg |eo|r l|rgg| serla prole|r, urea dar g|u|osa yarg |eo|r
rerdar. rerdar.
Ruarg arler|or Ruarg arler|or
rala leroerlarg rala leroerlarg
arlara |orrea arlara |orrea
dar |r|s. dar |r|s.
Ruarg posler|or Ruarg posler|or
leroerlarg leroerlarg
arlara |r|s dar arlara |r|s dar
|ersa. |ersa.
A|ueos ruror d|produ|s| lerus A|ueos ruror d|produ|s| lerus
rererus o|er |ap||er verosa d| rererus o|er |ap||er verosa d|
da|ar processus s||||ar|s. da|ar processus s||||ar|s.
A|ueos ruror |e|uar dar| A|ueos ruror |e|uar dar|
|arera posler|or re|eWal| |arera posler|or re|eWal|
pup|| |e da|ar |arera arler|or pup|| |e da|ar |arera arler|or
dar ca|rar |r| |e|uar re|eWal| dar ca|rar |r| |e|uar re|eWal|
oargurar yarg d|seoul oargurar yarg d|seoul
lraoe|u|a, yarg rerou|a |e lraoe|u|a, yarg rerou|a |e
da|ar sa|urar vera s|r|u|er da|ar sa|urar vera s|r|u|er
yarg d|seoul yarg d|seoul ,n, sone2n ,n, sone2n. .
Kara| |r| rerge|uar|ar Kara| |r| rerge|uar|ar
a|ueos ruror dar| rala a|ueos ruror dar| rala
|e s|r|u|as| s|sler||, |e s|r|u|as| s|sler||,
ser|rgga le|arar ser|rgga le|arar
|rlrao|u|er lelap dapal |rlrao|u|er lelap dapal
d|perlarar|ar secara d|perlarar|ar secara
|orslar. |orslar.
LEN3A LEN3A
3lru|lur s|r|u|er, |ura| dar 3lru|lur s|r|u|er, |ura| dar
o||orve|s, avas|u|ar, l|da| o||orve|s, avas|u|ar, l|da|
oerWarra dar rarp|r oerWarra dar rarp|r
lrarsparar serpurra. lrarsparar serpurra.
Teoa|rya se||lar 1 rr Teoa|rya se||lar 1 rr
dar d|areler 9 rr, dar d|areler 9 rr,
ler|ela| d| oe|a|arg |r|s, d| ler|ela| d| oe|a|arg |r|s, d|
depar oadar v|lreus. depar oadar v|lreus.
Terd|r| alas ê5º a|r dar 35º prole|r (lerl|rgg| Terd|r| alas ê5º a|r dar 35º prole|r (lerl|rgg|
d|arlara jar|rgar d|arlara jar|rgar--jar|rgar luour) dar sed|||l r|rera| jar|rgar luour) dar sed|||l r|rera|
yarg o|asa ada d| jar|rgar luour |a|rrya. yarg o|asa ada d| jar|rgar luour |a|rrya.
Kardurgar |a||ur |eo|r l|rgg| d| |ersa dar|pada d| Kardurgar |a||ur |eo|r l|rgg| d| |ersa dar|pada d|
|eoarya|ar jar|rgar |a|r. |eoarya|ar jar|rgar |a|r.
Asar as|oroal dar Asar as|oroal dar ur,r|on ur,r|on lerdapal da|ar oerlu| lerdapal da|ar oerlu|
lero|s|das| raupur leredu|s|. lero|s|das| raupur leredu|s|.
T|l|| pusal perru|aar T|l|| pusal perru|aar
arler|or dar posle|or arler|or dar posle|or
d|seoul po|us arler|or d|seoul po|us arler|or
dar po|us posler|or, dar po|us posler|or,
dar gar|s yarg dar gar|s yarg
re|eWal| |edua po|us re|eWal| |edua po|us
lerseoul a|s|s. lerseoul a|s|s.
Lersa lelap oerada Lersa lelap oerada
d|lerpalrya |arera dar| d|lerpalrya |arera dar|
depar d|le|ar o|er a|ueos depar d|le|ar o|er a|ueos
ruror, dar| oe|a|arg ruror, dar| oe|a|arg
d|le|ar o|er v|lreus ruror d|le|ar o|er v|lreus ruror
dar d|garlurg zoru|a alau dar d|garlurg zoru|a alau
||garer suspersor|ur. ||garer suspersor|ur.
Zoru|a: erorar l|p|s Zoru|a: erorar l|p|s
yarg rerulup| perru|aar yarg rerulup| perru|aar
da|ar oadar s|||er, da|ar oadar s|||er,
prosesus s|||ar|s dar |ersa. prosesus s|||ar|s dar |ersa.
Perru|aar posler|or |ersa |eo|r cerourg d|oard|rg|ar Perru|aar posler|or |ersa |eo|r cerourg d|oard|rg|ar
perru|aar arler|or dar |ersa |r| rererpal| lossa perru|aar arler|or dar |ersa |r| rererpal| lossa
r|a|o|dea oadar v|lreus. r|a|o|dea oadar v|lreus.
Lersa lerd|r| dar| 3 |ap|sar : Lersa lerd|r| dar| 3 |ap|sar :
1. 1. Kapsu| pada oag|ar |uar, oerlurgs| rerguoar oerlu| Kapsu| pada oag|ar |uar, oerlurgs| rerguoar oerlu|
|ersa dar re||rdurg| suoslars| |ersa dar| oadar v|lreus |ersa dar re||rdurg| suoslars| |ersa dar| oadar v|lreus
dar a|ueos ruror. dar a|ueos ruror.
2. 2. Korle|s. Korle|s.
3. 3. Nu||eus pada oag|ar da|ar. Nu||eus pada oag|ar da|ar.
Lersa rero|as|ar s|rar yarg rasu| re|a|u| pup|| Lersa rero|as|ar s|rar yarg rasu| re|a|u| pup||
agar dapal d|lo|us|ar alau jalur |e rel|ra. agar dapal d|lo|us|ar alau jalur |e rel|ra.
Kurvalura perru|aar |ersa oervar|as| yarg Kurvalura perru|aar |ersa oervar|as| yarg
rerurg||r|ar |rd|v|du oerlo|us pada ooje| de|al rerurg||r|ar |rd|v|du oerlo|us pada ooje| de|al
alau jaur. alau jaur.
Proses peruoarar |ecerourgar |ersa urlu| Proses peruoarar |ecerourgar |ersa urlu|
rerguoar jara| lo|us |r| d|seoul 'a|orodas|¨. rerguoar jara| lo|us |r| d|seoul 'a|orodas|¨.
A|orodas| d|rurg||r|ar A|orodas| d|rurg||r|ar
|arera adarya zoru|a alau |arera adarya zoru|a alau
||garer suspersor|ur ||garer suspersor|ur
yarg rerge||||rg| |ersa yarg rerge||||rg| |ersa
yarg d||erda|||ar o|er yarg d||erda|||ar o|er
rus|u|us s|||ar|s. rus|u|us s|||ar|s.
8||a rus|u|us s|||ar|s 8||a rus|u|us s|||ar|s
oer|orlra|s|, ||garer oer|orlra|s|, ||garer
suspersor|ur rerga|ar| suspersor|ur rerga|ar|
re|a|sas| dar reraroar re|a|sas| dar reraroar
|e|erg|urgar |ersa. |e|erg|urgar |ersa.
T|da| ada seral ryer|, perou|ur darar alau sarl d| |ersa. T|da| ada seral ryer|, perou|ur darar alau sarl d| |ersa.
3|lal l|s|| |ersa oervar|as|, oergarlurg pada urur: 3|lal l|s|| |ersa oervar|as|, oergarlurg pada urur:
1. 1. Pada lelus, |ersa rarp|r sler|s dar aga| |ura|. Pada lelus, |ersa rarp|r sler|s dar aga| |ura|.
2. 2. Pada deWasa perru|aar arler|or |urarg cerourg Pada deWasa perru|aar arler|or |urarg cerourg
d|oard|rg posler|or dar suoslars| |ersa rerjad| |eo|r d|oard|rg posler|or dar suoslars| |ersa rerjad| |eo|r
|eras. |eras.
3. 3. Pada urur 10 Pada urur 10--ar |ersa oerlaroar oesar dar |eo|r p|p|r, ar |ersa oerlaroar oesar dar |eo|r p|p|r,
oerWarra |e|ur|rgar dar rerjad| |eo|r |eras. oerWarra |e|ur|rgar dar rerjad| |eo|r |eras.
Peruoarar |r| oerlarggurg jaWao pada lerjad|rya Peruoarar |r| oerlarggurg jaWao pada lerjad|rya
preso|op|a. preso|op|a.
8A0AN vlTRE&3 8A0AN vlTRE&3
8er|s| zal ge|al|rosa yarg 8er|s| zal ge|al|rosa yarg
rererur| ruarg v|lreus, rererur| ruarg v|lreus,
ruarg arlara |ersa dar ruarg arlara |ersa dar
rel|ra. rel|ra.
8ag|ar deparrya 8ag|ar deparrya
oeroerlu| cororg urlu| oeroerlu| cororg urlu|
d|lerpal| o|er |ersa dar d|lerpal| o|er |ersa dar
d||e||||rg| o|er rerorar d||e||||rg| o|er rerorar
r|a|o|dea. r|a|o|dea.
Apao||a rerorar r|a|o|dea pecar |arera lraura Apao||a rerorar r|a|o|dea pecar |arera lraura
alau operas| ra|a oadar v|lreus a|ar |e|uar. 8||a alau operas| ra|a oadar v|lreus a|ar |e|uar. 8||a
oadar v|lreus |e|uar, ra|a oo|a rala a|ar oadar v|lreus |e|uar, ra|a oo|a rala a|ar
rergerul. rergerul.
8adar ge|al|rosa rerg|s| 1/5 oag|ar dar| vo|ure 8adar ge|al|rosa rerg|s| 1/5 oag|ar dar| vo|ure
oo|a rala dar rerja|ar|ar s|rar serla reroer||ar oo|a rala dar rerja|ar|ar s|rar serla reroer||ar
oerlu| pada rala posler|or. oerlu| pada rala posler|or.
8er|s| 99º a|r dar 1º |orporer |o|ager dar asar 8er|s| 99º a|r dar 1º |orporer |o|ager dar asar
r|a|uroral yarg reroer||ar oerlu| dar |ors|slers| r|r|p r|a|uroral yarg reroer||ar oerlu| dar |ors|slers| r|r|p
je| pada v|lreus |arera |erarpuarrya rerg||al oarya| je| pada v|lreus |arera |erarpuarrya rerg||al oarya|
a|r. a|r.
T|da| rergardurg perou|ur darar, lelap| rerdapal|ar T|da| rergardurg perou|ur darar, lelap| rerdapal|ar
rulr|s| dar| jar|rgar d| se||larrya. rulr|s| dar| jar|rgar d| se||larrya.
erjad| |eo|r ca|r dergar oerlaroarrya urur dar juga erjad| |eo|r ca|r dergar oerlaroarrya urur dar juga
dapal lerjad| pergerular. dapal lerjad| pergerular.
8TRUKTUR EK8TERNAL 8TRUKTUR EK8TERNAL
0R8lTA 0R8lTA
3lru|lur lu|arg yarg rerge||||rg| rala dar 3lru|lur lu|arg yarg rerge||||rg| rala dar
reroer||ar prole|s| pa||rg oesar pada rala reroer||ar prole|s| pa||rg oesar pada rala
lerulara urlu| segrer posler|or. lerulara urlu| segrer posler|or.
0|garoar|ar seoaga| p|rar|d 0|garoar|ar seoaga| p|rar|d
oerd|rd|rg erpal yarg oerd|rd|rg erpal yarg
oer|orvergers| |e arar oer|orvergers| |e arar
oe|a|arg. oe|a|arg.
0|rd|rg red|a| oro|la ||r| dar 0|rd|rg red|a| oro|la ||r| dar
|arar ler|ela| para|e| dar |arar ler|ela| para|e| dar
d|p|sar|ar o|er r|durg. d|p|sar|ar o|er r|durg.
vo|ure oro|la deWasa ||ra vo|ure oro|la deWasa ||ra--||ra ||ra
30 cc dar oo|a rala rarya 30 cc dar oo|a rala rarya
rererpal| se||lar 1/5 oag|ar rererpal| se||lar 1/5 oag|ar
ruargarrya. Lera| dar olol ruargarrya. Lera| dar olol
rererpal| oag|ar leroesarrya. rererpal| oag|ar leroesarrya.
3alu |ap|s las|a yarg 3alu |ap|s las|a yarg
d||era| dergar |apsu|a d||era| dergar |apsu|a
leror rerge||||rg| oo|a leror rerge||||rg| oo|a
rala dar| |orrea sarpa| rala dar| |orrea sarpa|
segrer posler|or dar segrer posler|or dar
rer|sar|ar rala dar| rer|sar|ar rala dar|
|era| oro|la. |era| oro|la.
0ro|la oerruourgar 0ro|la oerruourgar
dergar s|rus lrorla||s d| dergar s|rus lrorla||s d|
alas, s|rus ra|s|||ar|s d| alas, s|rus ra|s|||ar|s d|
oaWar serla s|rus oaWar serla s|rus
elro|da||s dar slero|da||s elro|da||s dar slero|da||s
d| red|a|. d| red|a|.
K0NJ&N0TlvA K0NJ&N0TlvA
erorar ru|osa l|p|s dar erorar ru|osa l|p|s dar
lrarsparar yarg re|ap|s| lrarsparar yarg re|ap|s|
oag|ar posler|or |e|opa| oag|ar posler|or |e|opa|
rala dar re||pal |e oo|a rala dar re||pal |e oo|a
rala urlu| re|ap|s| rala urlu| re|ap|s|
oag|ar arler|or oo|a rala oag|ar arler|or oo|a rala
sarpa| ||rous lerpal sarpa| ||rous lerpal
|orjurgl|va oeroalasar |orjurgl|va oeroalasar
dergar |orrea. dergar |orrea.
Korjurgl|va pa|peora: leroerlarg pada perru|aar Korjurgl|va pa|peora: leroerlarg pada perru|aar
posler|or ras|rg posler|or ras|rg--ras|rg |e|opa| rala. ras|rg |e|opa| rala.
Korjurgl|va ou|o|: Korjurgl|va yarg ler|ela| d| Korjurgl|va ou|o|: Korjurgl|va yarg ler|ela| d|
arler|or s||era. arler|or s||era.
Korjurgl|va pa|peora |eo|r leoa| dar|pada Korjurgl|va pa|peora |eo|r leoa| dar|pada
|orjurgl|va ou|o|. |orjurgl|va ou|o|.
Terpal oerlerurya |edua |orjurgl|va |r| d|seoul Terpal oerlerurya |edua |orjurgl|va |r| d|seoul
lorn|x/s,us on¡unr|v, lorn|x/s,us on¡unr|v,. .
Korjurgl|va reroer||ar prole|s| pada s||era dar Korjurgl|va reroer||ar prole|s| pada s||era dar
pe|urasar pada oo|a rala yarg d||a|u|ar o|er pe|urasar pada oo|a rala yarg d||a|u|ar o|er
|e|erjar ru|osa dar serosa. |e|erjar ru|osa dar serosa.
3ecara rorra| perou|ur darar pada |orjurgl|va 3ecara rorra| perou|ur darar pada |orjurgl|va
rerga|ar| |orslr||s| dar su||l d|||ral. 0||alas| rerga|ar| |orslr||s| dar su||l d|||ral. 0||alas|
perou|ur perou|ur--perou|ur darar dapal lerjad| o|er perou|ur darar dapal lerjad| o|er
oeroaga| |eadaar. oeroaga| |eadaar.
KEL0PAK ATA KEL0PAK ATA
3usurar |u||l yarg ra|us, 3usurar |u||l yarg ra|us,
l|p|s dar rudar l|p|s dar rudar
d|gera||ar. d|gera||ar.
Pada saal rerulup Pada saal rerulup
re||rdurg| rala dar| re||rdurg| rala dar|
rasu|rya oerda as|rg, rasu|rya oerda as|rg,
re||rdurg| caraya se|ara re||rdurg| caraya se|ara
l|dur dar reroarlu l|dur dar reroarlu
pergera|ar a|r rala urlu| pergera|ar a|r rala urlu|
rerjaga |e|eroapar rerjaga |e|eroapar
|orrea. |orrea.
8&L& ATA 8&L& ATA
Raroul l|p|s yarg Raroul l|p|s yarg
leroerlu| dar| 2 alau 3 leroerlu| dar| 2 alau 3
oar|s raroul |regu|er pada oar|s raroul |regu|er pada
oalas |e|opa| rala. oalas |e|opa| rala.
8u|u rala alas |eo|r 8u|u rala alas |eo|r
parjarg dar |eo|r oarya| parjarg dar |eo|r oarya|
dar| yarg d|oaWar dar dar| yarg d|oaWar dar
re|erg|urg |e alas, ou|u re|erg|urg |e alas, ou|u
rala oaWar re|erg|urg rala oaWar re|erg|urg
|e oaWar. |e oaWar.
8u|u rala sargal sers|l|l lerradap serlurar dar 8u|u rala sargal sers|l|l lerradap serlurar dar
re||rdurg| oo|a rala dar| deou alau parl||e| |ec||. re||rdurg| oo|a rala dar| deou alau parl||e| |ec||.
ALl3 ATA ALl3 ATA
L|palar |u||l yarg rereoa| L|palar |u||l yarg rereoa|
pada oag|ar alas oro|la pada oag|ar alas oro|la
yarg d|lulup| raroul yarg d|lulup| raroul
oeroerlu| gar|s. oeroerlu| gar|s.
e||rdurg| rala dar| e||rdurg| rala dar|
persp|ras| (|er|rgal) dar| persp|ras| (|er|rgal) dar|
dar rerarg|ap parl||e| dar rerarg|ap parl||e|
orgar|| dar arorgar||. orgar|| dar arorgar||.
APARAT&3 LAKRlALl3 APARAT&3 LAKRlALl3
Terd|r| alas g|ardu|a Terd|r| alas g|ardu|a
|a|r|ra||s dergar du|lus |a|r|ra||s dergar du|lus--
du|lusrya, |ara|||u|| du|lusrya, |ara|||u||
|a|r|ra|, sa|us |a|r|ra||s |a|r|ra|, sa|us |a|r|ra||s
dar du|lus raso|a|r|ra||s. dar du|lus raso|a|r|ra||s.
A|r rala d|produ|s| o|er A|r rala d|produ|s| o|er
|e|erjar |a|r|ra| yarg |e|erjar |a|r|ra| yarg
ler|ela| pada oag|ar ler|ela| pada oag|ar
lerpora| alas ras|rg lerpora| alas ras|rg--
ras|rg oro|l. ras|rg oro|l.
Terdapal 8 Terdapal 8--12 du|lus 12 du|lus
|a|r|ra||s yarg |a|r|ra||s yarg
rerga||r|ar a|r rala |e rerga||r|ar a|r rala |e
oag|ar alas dar |alera| oag|ar alas dar |alera|
lorr||s |orjurgl|va. lorr||s |orjurgl|va.
0ar| lorr||s super|or a|r 0ar| lorr||s super|or a|r
rala rerga||r |e da|ar rala rerga||r |e da|ar
,or|2, ,e ,or|2, ,e pada |arlus pada |arlus
oaWar, |erud|ar oaWar, |erud|ar punoru2 punoru2
(yarg lerdapal pada (yarg lerdapal pada
ras|rg ras|rg--ras|rg |arlus), ras|rg |arlus),
|ara|||u|| |a|r|ra||s, |e |ara|||u|| |a|r|ra||s, |e
da|ar sa|us |a|r|ra||s dar da|ar sa|us |a|r|ra||s dar
|erud|ar rasu| r|durg |erud|ar rasu| r|durg
re|a|u| du|lus re|a|u| du|lus
raso|a|r|ra||s. raso|a|r|ra||s.
A|r rala lerd|r| dar| 98º a|r, 1,5º NaC| A|r rala lerd|r| dar| 98º a|r, 1,5º NaC|
(reroer||ar rasa as|r pada a|r rala) dar ||soz|r (reroer||ar rasa as|r pada a|r rala) dar ||soz|r
(rerpurya| ele| arl| oa|ler|). (rerpurya| ele| arl| oa|ler|).
Furgs| a|r rala ada|ar rercuc| dar reroasar| Furgs| a|r rala ada|ar rercuc| dar reroasar|
perru|aar |orrea. perru|aar |orrea.
3aal |orrea rerjad| |er|rg, |ed|par rala dar 3aal |orrea rerjad| |er|rg, |ed|par rala dar
|e|opa| rala reroaWa se|ap|s ca|rar |a|r|ra| |e |e|opa| rala reroaWa se|ap|s ca|rar |a|r|ra| |e
se|urur rala. se|urur rala.
3e|res| dar| |e|erjar |a|r|ra| ulara d|p|cu o|er 3e|res| dar| |e|erjar |a|r|ra| ulara d|p|cu o|er
eros| alau |r|las| l|s|| dar reryeoao|ar a|rrala eros| alau |r|las| l|s|| dar reryeoao|ar a|rrala
rerga||r oer||rpar re|eWal| lep|ar pa|peora. rerga||r oer||rpar re|eWal| lep|ar pa|peora.
0T0T 0T0T
Terdapal Z olol vo|uler dar| oro|l, ê d|arlararya Terdapal Z olol vo|uler dar| oro|l, ê d|arlararya
dapal rerular oo|a rala pada oeoerapa per|rlar dapal rerular oo|a rala pada oeoerapa per|rlar
dar rergoord|ras| pergera|ar rala. dar rergoord|ras| pergera|ar rala.
1 dar| olol 1 dar| olol--olol olol
e|slrao|u|er lerseoul e|slrao|u|er lerseoul
ada|ar olol re|lus (|urus). ada|ar olol re|lus (|urus).
2 olol e|slrao|u|er yarg 2 olol e|slrao|u|er yarg
|a|r ada|ar olol oo|||. |a|r ada|ar olol oo|||.
Korlra|s| olol e|slrao|u|er Korlra|s| olol e|slrao|u|er
a|ar rerular rala dar a|ar rerular rala dar
olol olol--olol re|lus a|ar olol re|lus a|ar
rergeroa|||ar |e pos|s| rergeroa|||ar |e pos|s|
seru|a, saal rala seru|a, saal rala
oergera| secara lerpora|. oergera| secara lerpora|.
0lol 0lol- -olol oo||| rerpurya| olol oo||| rerpurya|
a|s| leroesar saal rala a|s| leroesar saal rala
oergera| secara rasa| oergera| secara rasa|
(reruju r|durg). (reruju r|durg).
0lol 0lol--olol re|lus |alera| dar olol re|lus |alera| dar
|rler|or oo||| rergorlro| |rler|or oo||| rergorlro|
pergera|ar rala |e alas. pergera|ar rala |e alas.
Addu|s| rala d||orlro| o|er Addu|s| rala d||orlro| o|er
olol re|lus red|a| dar olol re|lus red|a| dar
|rler|or. |rler|or.
0lol oo||| super|or 0lol oo||| super|or
rergorlro| pergera|ar rergorlro| pergera|ar
rala |eoaWar. rala |eoaWar.
0lol 0lol--olol |r| l|da| oe|erja secara oeoas lelap| olol |r| l|da| oe|erja secara oeoas lelap|
oerruourgar dergar olol yarg rer|rou||ar oerruourgar dergar olol yarg rer|rou||ar
pergera|ar |e arar yarg oer|aWarar. pergera|ar |e arar yarg oer|aWarar.
Pergera|ar rala yarg ra|us d|gera||ar o|er Pergera|ar rala yarg ra|us d|gera||ar o|er
|orlra|s| dar re|a|sas| olol |orlra|s| dar re|a|sas| olol--olol yarg oerruourgar olol yarg oerruourgar
salu sara |a|r. salu sara |a|r.
0lol oro|l |e 0lol oro|l |e--Z ada|ar Z ada|ar
|evalor pa|peora, oe|erja |evalor pa|peora, oe|erja
rerge|evas| |e|opa| rala rerge|evas| |e|opa| rala
alas. alas.
0lol |r| l|da| rasu| |e 0lol |r| l|da| rasu| |e
da|ar oo|a rala ser|rgga da|ar oo|a rala ser|rgga
l|da| o|sa rerggera||ar l|da| o|sa rerggera||ar
oo|a rala. oo|a rala.
3ARAF 3ARAF
0lol e|slrao|u|er 0lol e|slrao|u|er
d|persaral| o|er |rar|a| d|persaral| o|er |rar|a|
o|u|orolor|s (N.lll), o|u|orolor|s (N.lll),
lro|r|ear|s (N.lv) dar lro|r|ear|s (N.lv) dar
aoduser (N.vl). aoduser (N.vl).
3aral rala (N.ll) ada|ar 3aral rala (N.ll) ada|ar
saral perg||ralar yarg saral perg||ralar yarg
rergruourg|ar d|s|us rergruourg|ar d|s|us
opl||us |e ola|. opl||us |e ola|.
8ag|ar olla|r||us dar| lr|ger|ra| (N.v) 8ag|ar olla|r||us dar| lr|ger|ra| (N.v)
rerg|rervas| oag|ar sersor| dar| rel|e|s oer|ed|p, rerg|rervas| oag|ar sersor| dar| rel|e|s oer|ed|p,
rel|e|s |r| lerargsarg j||a |orrea d|serlur. rel|e|s |r| lerargsarg j||a |orrea d|serlur.
Nervus las|a||s (N.vll) rerpersaral| |e|erjar Nervus las|a||s (N.vll) rerpersaral| |e|erjar
|a|r|ra| dar olol |a|r|ra| dar olol--olol yarg ler||oal da|ar perulupar olol yarg ler||oal da|ar perulupar
|e|opa| rala. |e|opa| rala.
PE8&L&l PE8&L&l
Arler| olla|r||us (caoarg Arler| olla|r||us (caoarg
arler| |arol|s |rlerra) ada|ar arler| |arol|s |rlerra) ada|ar
arler| ulara yarg arler| ulara yarg
reryup|a| slru|lur d| da|ar reryup|a| slru|lur d| da|ar
oro|l. oro|l.
Arler| serlra| rel|ra ada|ar salu dar| yarg pa||rg |ec|| lelap| Arler| serlra| rel|ra ada|ar salu dar| yarg pa||rg |ec|| lelap|
rerupa|ar caoarg pa||rg perl|rg dar| arle| olla|r||us rerupa|ar caoarg pa||rg perl|rg dar| arle| olla|r||us
|arera oerlarggurg jaWao reryup|a| darar |e rel|ra. |arera oerlarggurg jaWao reryup|a| darar |e rel|ra.
Arler| s|||ar|s reryup|a| s||era, |oro|d, oadar s|||ar|s dar Arler| s|||ar|s reryup|a| s||era, |oro|d, oadar s|||ar|s dar
|r|s. |r|s.
0ra|rase vera re|a|u| dua vera olla|r||us. 0ra|rase vera re|a|u| dua vera olla|r||us.
al|us ê:22 al|us ê:22--23 23
ala ada|ar pe||la luour. J||a ralaru oa||, ala ada|ar pe||la luour. J||a ralaru oa||,
lerarg|ar se|urur luourru, j||a ralaru lerarg|ar se|urur luourru, j||a ralaru
jaral, ge|ap|ar se|urur luourru. Jad| j||a jaral, ge|ap|ar se|urur luourru. Jad| j||a
lerarg yarg ada padaru ge|ap, oelapa lerarg yarg ada padaru ge|ap, oelapa
ge|aprya |ege|apar |lu. ge|aprya |ege|apar |lu.
TERlA KA3ll TERlA KA3ll

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