u. u.

Su0HARH0t0 Su0HARH0t0, ,
SKFP SKFP
AtAT0Hl-FlSl0l06l
HATA
% %
Struktur Struktur Mata: Mata:
1. 1. Internal Internal
2. 2. Eksternal Eksternal
8TRUKTUR |NTERNAL 8TRUKTUR |NTERNAL
0|areler oo|a rala : 0|areler oo|a rala :
|urarg |eo|r 2,5 cr. |urarg |eo|r 2,5 cr.
Ter|ela| pada oag|ar Ter|ela| pada oag|ar
arler|or oro|l. arler|or oro|l.
Terd|r| dar| : Terd|r| dar| :
1. 1. Lap|sar Luar. Lap|sar Luar.
2. 2. Lap|sar Tergar. Lap|sar Tergar.
3. 3. Lap|sar 0a|ar. Lap|sar 0a|ar.
A. A. Lap|san Lap|san Luar Luar
erupa|ar |a|psar l|orous erupa|ar |a|psar l|orous
yarg reryargga rala, lerd|r| yarg reryargga rala, lerd|r|
dar| : 3||era dar Korrea. dar| : 3||era dar Korrea.
3KLERA 3KLERA
Jar|rgar padal, oerWarra Jar|rgar padal, oerWarra
pul|r. pul|r.
ererpal| 5/ê oag|ar ererpal| 5/ê oag|ar
posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a rala. posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a rala.
Pada orarg deWasa alau Pada orarg deWasa alau
|ars|a, depos|l |era| dapal |ars|a, depos|l |era| dapal
reroer||ar Warra |ur|rg reroer||ar Warra |ur|rg
pada s||era. pada s||era.
K0RNEA K0RNEA
Lap|sar padal, avas|u|er dar Lap|sar padal, avas|u|er dar
lrarsparar yarg oersarourg lrarsparar yarg oersarourg
dergar s||era. dergar s||era.
ererpal| 1/ê oag|ar arler|or ererpal| 1/ê oag|ar arler|or
d|rd|rg oo|a rala dergar d|rd|rg oo|a rala dergar
d|areler ||ra d|areler ||ra--||ra 11 rr. ||ra 11 rr.
,3:9,3 ,3:9,3
Korrea Korrea |arjular |arjular dar| dar|
s||era s||era, , lelap| lelap| |eo|r |eo|r leoa| leoa|. .
L|rous L|rous : : Perleruar Perleruar
|orrea |orrea dergar dergar s||era s||era. .
Ar|us Ar|us ser|||s ser|||s : : C|rc|r C|rc|r pul|r pul|r
pada pada pada pada ||rous ||rous a||oal a||oal
adarya adarya degereras| degereras| |era| |era|
pada pada |ars|a |ars|a. .
Kornea Kornea tersusun tersusun atas atas 5 5 |ap|san |ap|san ::
1. 1. Ep|le||ur Ep|le||ur. .
2. 2. erorara erorara 8oWrar. 8oWrar.
3. 3. 3lrora 3lrora. .
1. 1. erorara erorara 0escererl 0escererl. .
5. 5. Erdole||ur Erdole||ur. .
. . Lap|san Lap|san Tengah Tengah
&vea, |ap|sar |edua dar| &vea, |ap|sar |edua dar|
oo|a rala, rerupa|ar oo|a rala, rerupa|ar
|ap|sar oervas|u|er dar |ap|sar oervas|u|er dar
oerp|grer. oerp|grer.
Lap|sar |r| oer|s| : Koro|d, Lap|sar |r| oer|s| : Koro|d,
8adar s|||ar dar lr|s. 8adar s|||ar dar lr|s.
K0R0l0 K0R0l0
erorar co||al lua, ler|ela| arlara s||era dar erorar co||al lua, ler|ela| arlara s||era dar
rel|ra. rel|ra.
8ag|ar leroesar dar| |ap|sar lergar, d||ap|s| o|er 8ag|ar leroesar dar| |ap|sar lergar, d||ap|s| o|er
seoag|ar oesar s||era. seoag|ar oesar s||era.
8er|s| oarya| perou|ur darar yarg reryup|a| 8er|s| oarya| perou|ur darar yarg reryup|a|
rulr|er |e rel|ra dar oadar v|lreus. rulr|er |e rel|ra dar oadar v|lreus.
ercegar rel|e|s| |rlerra| caraya. ercegar rel|e|s| |rlerra| caraya.
8A0AN (K0RP&3) 3lLlARE 8A0AN (K0RP&3) 3lLlARE
ergruourg|ar |oro|d ergruourg|ar |oro|d
dergar |r|s. dergar |r|s.
Pada perru|aar da|ar |orpus Pada perru|aar da|ar |orpus
s|||are lerdapal prosesus s|||ar|s s|||are lerdapal prosesus s|||ar|s
yarg rergras|||ar a|ueos yarg rergras|||ar a|ueos
ruror re|a|u| proses d|a||s|s ruror re|a|u| proses d|a||s|s
dar se|res|. dar se|res|.
Prosesus |r| oarya| Prosesus |r| oarya|
rergardurg perou|ur darar rergardurg perou|ur darar
dar seraoul saral. dar seraoul saral.
lRl3 lRl3
Perparjargar |orpus Perparjargar |orpus
s|||are |e arler|or dar s|||are |e arler|or dar
rerupa|ar oag|ar rala rerupa|ar oag|ar rala
yarg oerWarra serla yarg oerWarra serla
rerarpa||ar rerarpa||ar
|ara|ler|sl|| o|ru, r|jau, |ara|ler|sl|| o|ru, r|jau,
raze|, aou raze|, aou--aou alau aou alau
co|e|al. co|e|al.
Pup||÷Ter|ela| Pup||÷Ter|ela| d|depar d|depar
|ersa |ersa, , d| d| oe|a|arg oe|a|arg |orrea |orrea, ,
dar dar reroerlu| reroerlu| ||rg|arar ||rg|arar
lerou|a lerou|a
3aal 3aal |rd|v|du |rd|v|du lerjaga lerjaga, ,
u|urar u|urar pup|| pup|| oervar|as| oervar|as|
sesua| sesua| jur|ar jur|ar caraya caraya
yarg yarg rasu| rasu|. .
lr|s reroag| secara pars|a| ruarg yarg oer|s| a|ueous lr|s reroag| secara pars|a| ruarg yarg oer|s| a|ueous
ruror arlara |orrea dar |ersa rerjad| 2 oag|ar ya|lu: ruror arlara |orrea dar |ersa rerjad| 2 oag|ar ya|lu:
Karera Arler|or dar Karera Posler|or. Karera Arler|or dar Karera Posler|or.
8ag|ar a|ar |r|s re|e|al pada perru|aar oadar s|||er. 8ag|ar a|ar |r|s re|e|al pada perru|aar oadar s|||er.
Pada l|l|| per|e|alar |r| |r|s re|al|l l|p|s ser|rgga dapal Pada l|l|| per|e|alar |r| |r|s re|al|l l|p|s ser|rgga dapal
rooe| |arera lraura pada rala. rooe| |arera lraura pada rala.
Furgs| |r|s: rergalur jur|ar caraya yarg rasu| |e rala. Furgs| |r|s: rergalur jur|ar caraya yarg rasu| |e rala.
. . Lap|san Lap|san 0a|am 0a|am
RETlNA RETlNA
3lru|lur l|p|s, ra|us dar 3lru|lur l|p|s, ra|us dar
oer|rg lerpal seral oer|rg lerpal seral--seral seral
saral opl|| d|d|slr|ous||ar. saral opl|| d|d|slr|ous||ar.
e|ap|s| oag|ar da|ar 2/3 e|ap|s| oag|ar da|ar 2/3
posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a posler|or d|rd|rg oo|a
rala. rala.
3ecara e|slerra| d|oalas| 3ecara e|slerra| d|oalas|
o|er |oro|d dar s||era. o|er |oro|d dar s||era.
3ecara |rlerra| d|oalas| 3ecara |rlerra| d|oalas|
o|er rerorar o|er rerorar
r|a|o|dea dar| oadar r|a|o|dea dar| oadar
v|lreus. v|lreus.
8er|s| perou|ur darar 8er|s| perou|ur darar
yarg reryup|a| rulr|s| yarg reryup|a| rulr|s|
|e jar|rgar rel|ra dar |e jar|rgar rel|ra dar
dua |e|as loloreseplor dua |e|as loloreseplor
yarg d|seoul yarg d|seoul rnoo rnoo
(oalarg) dar (oalarg) dar oones oones
(|erucul). (|erucul).
Rl00 : Rl00 :
1. 1. 8erlurgs| rergurarg| derajal ||ur|ras| (lerarg) 8erlurgs| rergurarg| derajal ||ur|ras| (lerarg)
dar oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap pardargar dar oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap pardargar
per|ler. per|ler.
2. 2. 0|gura|ar apao||a |rlers|las caraya rerdar dar 0|gura|ar apao||a |rlers|las caraya rerdar dar
reroer||ar garoarar aou reroer||ar garoarar aou--aou. aou.
3. 3. 3argal oarya| d| oag|ar depar rel|ra. 3argal oarya| d| oag|ar depar rel|ra.
1. 1. erguoar rargsarg caraya rerjad| |rpu|s ||slr|| erguoar rargsarg caraya rerjad| |rpu|s ||slr||
yarg oerja|ar separjarg seraoul saral sersor|s yarg oerja|ar separjarg seraoul saral sersor|s
reruju daerar perg||ralar d| ola|. reruju daerar perg||ralar d| ola|.
&rlu| lurgs| |r| d|per|u|ar &rlu| lurgs| |r| d|per|u|ar rooops|n rooops|n (sualu (sualu
seryaWa yarg lersusur alas prole|r dar p|grer seryaWa yarg lersusur alas prole|r dar p|grer
|arolera). |arolera).
8||a lerpapar caraya, seryaWa |r| a|ar pecar 8||a lerpapar caraya, seryaWa |r| a|ar pecar
dar p|grer d|uoar rerjad| v|lar|r A. dar p|grer d|uoar rerjad| v|lar|r A.
Pada |eadaar ge|ap, rodops|r d|res|rles|s dar| Pada |eadaar ge|ap, rodops|r d|res|rles|s dar|
v|lar|r A dar prole|r, reryeoao|ar |epe|aar v|lar|r A dar prole|r, reryeoao|ar |epe|aar
rnoo rnoo rer|rg|al dar d|serla| adarya pe|eoarar pup|| rer|rg|al dar d|serla| adarya pe|eoarar pup||
(rerurg||r|ar |eo|r oarya| caraya yarg rasu| (rerurg||r|ar |eo|r oarya| caraya yarg rasu|
|e da|ar rala) reryeoao|ar seseorarg dapal |e da|ar rala) reryeoao|ar seseorarg dapal
oeradaplas| pada |eadaar ge|ap. oeradaplas| pada |eadaar ge|ap.
Adaplas| lerradap caraya lerarg d|seoao|ar o|er Adaplas| lerradap caraya lerarg d|seoao|ar o|er
perecarar rodops|r yarg reryeoao|ar perecarar rodops|r yarg reryeoao|ar
pergurargar |epe|aar pergurargar |epe|aar rnoo rnoo d|serla| dergar d|serla| dergar
pergec||ar pup|| yarg reroalas| oarya|rya pergec||ar pup|| yarg reroalas| oarya|rya
caraya yarg rerasu|| rala. caraya yarg rerasu|| rala.
C0NE : C0NE :
1. 1. 8erlurgs| rer|rg|al|ar derajal ||ur|ras| dar 8erlurgs| rer|rg|al|ar derajal ||ur|ras| dar
oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap perg||ralar serlra| oerlarggurg jaWao lerradap perg||ralar serlra|
dar perg||ralar Warra. dar perg||ralar Warra.
Terdapal |urarg |eo|r 110 Terdapal |urarg |eo|r 110 - - 125 jula rrod dar 125 jula rrod dar
|urarg |eo|r ê,5 jula core pada salu rel|ra. |urarg |eo|r ê,5 jula core pada salu rel|ra.
F&N0&3 0PTlK F&N0&3 0PTlK
Ter|ela| pada oag|ar Ter|ela| pada oag|ar
posler|or rala. posler|or rala.
0|da|arrya lerdapal 0|da|arrya lerdapal
d|s|us opl||us yarg d|s|us opl||us yarg
rerupa|ar daerar rerupa|ar daerar
oerWarra pul|r rerar oerWarra pul|r rerar
ruda ruda--|rer pada rel|ra. |rer pada rel|ra.
0|s|us opl|| |adarg 0|s|us opl|| |adarg--
|adarg d|seoul seoaga| |adarg d|seoul seoaga|
l|l|| oula ( l|l|| oula (-|no spor -|no spor) )
|arera rarya |arera rarya
rergardurg seraoul saral rergardurg seraoul saral
larpa se| larpa se|--se| loloreseplor se| loloreseplor
dar l|da| sers|l|l lerradap dar l|da| sers|l|l lerradap
s|rar. s|rar.
Pada oag|ar |alera| dar Pada oag|ar |alera| dar
lerpora| d|s|us opl|| lerpora| d|s|us opl||
lerdapal area |ec||, ova|, lerdapal area |ec||, ova|,
rerar ruda |e|ur|rgar rerar ruda |e|ur|rgar
yarg d|seoul ra|u|a |ulea yarg d|seoul ra|u|a |ulea
(o|rl|| |ur|rg) oerd|areler (o|rl|| |ur|rg) oerd|areler
1 rr, rerupa|ar daerar 1 rr, rerupa|ar daerar
yarg pa||rg je|as urlu| yarg pa||rg je|as urlu|
re||ral. re||ral.
8ag|ar serlra| ra|u|a 8ag|ar serlra| ra|u|a
yarg aga| |e da|ar yarg aga| |e da|ar
d|seoul lovea serlra||s d|seoul lovea serlra||s
lerpal lerjad| pardargar lerpal lerjad| pardargar
a|ul leroesar. J||a oag|ar a|ul leroesar. J||a oag|ar
|r| rusa|, lajar |r| rusa|, lajar
perg||ralar ( perg||ralar (,ou|ry ,ou|ry) )
oer|urarg dar dapal oer|urarg dar dapal
lerjad| |eoulaar serlra|. lerjad| |eoulaar serlra|.
E0|A REFRAKT|F E0|A REFRAKT|F
Ja|arrya ge|oroarg caraya |e rel|ra a|ar re|a|u| Ja|arrya ge|oroarg caraya |e rel|ra a|ar re|a|u|
slru|lur dergar |epadalar yarg oervar|as|, slru|lur dergar |epadalar yarg oervar|as|,
re||pul|: Korrea, A|ueos ruror, Lersa dar v|lreus re||pul|: Korrea, A|ueos ruror, Lersa dar v|lreus
lurour. lurour.
3el|ap slru|lur reryeoao|ar ge|oroarg caraya 3el|ap slru|lur reryeoao|ar ge|oroarg caraya
rero|as alau relra|s| sarpa| oeoerapa derajal. rero|as alau relra|s| sarpa| oeoerapa derajal.
3lru|lur |r| d|seoul 3lru|lur |r| d|seoul 2eo|, relr,r|l 2,r, 2eo|, relr,r|l 2,r,
K0RNEA K0RNEA
Lap|sar padal dar Lap|sar padal dar
lrarsparar, oersarourg lrarsparar, oersarourg
dergar s||era, rererpal| dergar s||era, rererpal|
1/ê oag|ar arler|or rala. 1/ê oag|ar arler|or rala.
AK&E03 l&0R AK&E03 l&0R
Ca|rar jerr|r yarg rerg|s| ruarg arler|or dar Ca|rar jerr|r yarg rerg|s| ruarg arler|or dar
posler|or rala. posler|or rala.
Korpos|s| serupa dergar p|asra lelap| rer||||| Korpos|s| serupa dergar p|asra lelap| rer|||||
|orserlras| as|oroal, p|ruval dar |a|lal yarg |eo|r |orserlras| as|oroal, p|ruval dar |a|lal yarg |eo|r
l|rgg| serla prole|r, urea dar g|u|osa yarg |eo|r l|rgg| serla prole|r, urea dar g|u|osa yarg |eo|r
rerdar. rerdar.
Ruarg arler|or Ruarg arler|or
rala leroerlarg rala leroerlarg
arlara |orrea arlara |orrea
dar |r|s. dar |r|s.
Ruarg posler|or Ruarg posler|or
leroerlarg leroerlarg
arlara |r|s dar arlara |r|s dar
|ersa. |ersa.
A|ueos ruror d|produ|s| lerus A|ueos ruror d|produ|s| lerus
rererus o|er |ap||er verosa d| rererus o|er |ap||er verosa d|
da|ar processus s||||ar|s. da|ar processus s||||ar|s.
A|ueos ruror |e|uar dar| A|ueos ruror |e|uar dar|
|arera posler|or re|eWal| |arera posler|or re|eWal|
pup|| |e da|ar |arera arler|or pup|| |e da|ar |arera arler|or
dar ca|rar |r| |e|uar re|eWal| dar ca|rar |r| |e|uar re|eWal|
oargurar yarg d|seoul oargurar yarg d|seoul
lraoe|u|a, yarg rerou|a |e lraoe|u|a, yarg rerou|a |e
da|ar sa|urar vera s|r|u|er da|ar sa|urar vera s|r|u|er
yarg d|seoul yarg d|seoul ,n, sone2n ,n, sone2n. .
Kara| |r| rerge|uar|ar Kara| |r| rerge|uar|ar
a|ueos ruror dar| rala a|ueos ruror dar| rala
|e s|r|u|as| s|sler||, |e s|r|u|as| s|sler||,
ser|rgga le|arar ser|rgga le|arar
|rlrao|u|er lelap dapal |rlrao|u|er lelap dapal
d|perlarar|ar secara d|perlarar|ar secara
|orslar. |orslar.
LEN3A LEN3A
3lru|lur s|r|u|er, |ura| dar 3lru|lur s|r|u|er, |ura| dar
o||orve|s, avas|u|ar, l|da| o||orve|s, avas|u|ar, l|da|
oerWarra dar rarp|r oerWarra dar rarp|r
lrarsparar serpurra. lrarsparar serpurra.
Teoa|rya se||lar 1 rr Teoa|rya se||lar 1 rr
dar d|areler 9 rr, dar d|areler 9 rr,
ler|ela| d| oe|a|arg |r|s, d| ler|ela| d| oe|a|arg |r|s, d|
depar oadar v|lreus. depar oadar v|lreus.
Terd|r| alas ê5º a|r dar 35º prole|r (lerl|rgg| Terd|r| alas ê5º a|r dar 35º prole|r (lerl|rgg|
d|arlara jar|rgar d|arlara jar|rgar--jar|rgar luour) dar sed|||l r|rera| jar|rgar luour) dar sed|||l r|rera|
yarg o|asa ada d| jar|rgar luour |a|rrya. yarg o|asa ada d| jar|rgar luour |a|rrya.
Kardurgar |a||ur |eo|r l|rgg| d| |ersa dar|pada d| Kardurgar |a||ur |eo|r l|rgg| d| |ersa dar|pada d|
|eoarya|ar jar|rgar |a|r. |eoarya|ar jar|rgar |a|r.
Asar as|oroal dar Asar as|oroal dar ur,r|on ur,r|on lerdapal da|ar oerlu| lerdapal da|ar oerlu|
lero|s|das| raupur leredu|s|. lero|s|das| raupur leredu|s|.
T|l|| pusal perru|aar T|l|| pusal perru|aar
arler|or dar posle|or arler|or dar posle|or
d|seoul po|us arler|or d|seoul po|us arler|or
dar po|us posler|or, dar po|us posler|or,
dar gar|s yarg dar gar|s yarg
re|eWal| |edua po|us re|eWal| |edua po|us
lerseoul a|s|s. lerseoul a|s|s.
Lersa lelap oerada Lersa lelap oerada
d|lerpalrya |arera dar| d|lerpalrya |arera dar|
depar d|le|ar o|er a|ueos depar d|le|ar o|er a|ueos
ruror, dar| oe|a|arg ruror, dar| oe|a|arg
d|le|ar o|er v|lreus ruror d|le|ar o|er v|lreus ruror
dar d|garlurg zoru|a alau dar d|garlurg zoru|a alau
||garer suspersor|ur. ||garer suspersor|ur.
Zoru|a: erorar l|p|s Zoru|a: erorar l|p|s
yarg rerulup| perru|aar yarg rerulup| perru|aar
da|ar oadar s|||er, da|ar oadar s|||er,
prosesus s|||ar|s dar |ersa. prosesus s|||ar|s dar |ersa.
Perru|aar posler|or |ersa |eo|r cerourg d|oard|rg|ar Perru|aar posler|or |ersa |eo|r cerourg d|oard|rg|ar
perru|aar arler|or dar |ersa |r| rererpal| lossa perru|aar arler|or dar |ersa |r| rererpal| lossa
r|a|o|dea oadar v|lreus. r|a|o|dea oadar v|lreus.
Lersa lerd|r| dar| 3 |ap|sar : Lersa lerd|r| dar| 3 |ap|sar :
1. 1. Kapsu| pada oag|ar |uar, oerlurgs| rerguoar oerlu| Kapsu| pada oag|ar |uar, oerlurgs| rerguoar oerlu|
|ersa dar re||rdurg| suoslars| |ersa dar| oadar v|lreus |ersa dar re||rdurg| suoslars| |ersa dar| oadar v|lreus
dar a|ueos ruror. dar a|ueos ruror.
2. 2. Korle|s. Korle|s.
3. 3. Nu||eus pada oag|ar da|ar. Nu||eus pada oag|ar da|ar.
Lersa rero|as|ar s|rar yarg rasu| re|a|u| pup|| Lersa rero|as|ar s|rar yarg rasu| re|a|u| pup||
agar dapal d|lo|us|ar alau jalur |e rel|ra. agar dapal d|lo|us|ar alau jalur |e rel|ra.
Kurvalura perru|aar |ersa oervar|as| yarg Kurvalura perru|aar |ersa oervar|as| yarg
rerurg||r|ar |rd|v|du oerlo|us pada ooje| de|al rerurg||r|ar |rd|v|du oerlo|us pada ooje| de|al
alau jaur. alau jaur.
Proses peruoarar |ecerourgar |ersa urlu| Proses peruoarar |ecerourgar |ersa urlu|
rerguoar jara| lo|us |r| d|seoul 'a|orodas|¨. rerguoar jara| lo|us |r| d|seoul 'a|orodas|¨.
A|orodas| d|rurg||r|ar A|orodas| d|rurg||r|ar
|arera adarya zoru|a alau |arera adarya zoru|a alau
||garer suspersor|ur ||garer suspersor|ur
yarg rerge||||rg| |ersa yarg rerge||||rg| |ersa
yarg d||erda|||ar o|er yarg d||erda|||ar o|er
rus|u|us s|||ar|s. rus|u|us s|||ar|s.
8||a rus|u|us s|||ar|s 8||a rus|u|us s|||ar|s
oer|orlra|s|, ||garer oer|orlra|s|, ||garer
suspersor|ur rerga|ar| suspersor|ur rerga|ar|
re|a|sas| dar reraroar re|a|sas| dar reraroar
|e|erg|urgar |ersa. |e|erg|urgar |ersa.
T|da| ada seral ryer|, perou|ur darar alau sarl d| |ersa. T|da| ada seral ryer|, perou|ur darar alau sarl d| |ersa.
3|lal l|s|| |ersa oervar|as|, oergarlurg pada urur: 3|lal l|s|| |ersa oervar|as|, oergarlurg pada urur:
1. 1. Pada lelus, |ersa rarp|r sler|s dar aga| |ura|. Pada lelus, |ersa rarp|r sler|s dar aga| |ura|.
2. 2. Pada deWasa perru|aar arler|or |urarg cerourg Pada deWasa perru|aar arler|or |urarg cerourg
d|oard|rg posler|or dar suoslars| |ersa rerjad| |eo|r d|oard|rg posler|or dar suoslars| |ersa rerjad| |eo|r
|eras. |eras.
3. 3. Pada urur 10 Pada urur 10--ar |ersa oerlaroar oesar dar |eo|r p|p|r, ar |ersa oerlaroar oesar dar |eo|r p|p|r,
oerWarra |e|ur|rgar dar rerjad| |eo|r |eras. oerWarra |e|ur|rgar dar rerjad| |eo|r |eras.
Peruoarar |r| oerlarggurg jaWao pada lerjad|rya Peruoarar |r| oerlarggurg jaWao pada lerjad|rya
preso|op|a. preso|op|a.
8A0AN vlTRE&3 8A0AN vlTRE&3
8er|s| zal ge|al|rosa yarg 8er|s| zal ge|al|rosa yarg
rererur| ruarg v|lreus, rererur| ruarg v|lreus,
ruarg arlara |ersa dar ruarg arlara |ersa dar
rel|ra. rel|ra.
8ag|ar deparrya 8ag|ar deparrya
oeroerlu| cororg urlu| oeroerlu| cororg urlu|
d|lerpal| o|er |ersa dar d|lerpal| o|er |ersa dar
d||e||||rg| o|er rerorar d||e||||rg| o|er rerorar
r|a|o|dea. r|a|o|dea.
Apao||a rerorar r|a|o|dea pecar |arera lraura Apao||a rerorar r|a|o|dea pecar |arera lraura
alau operas| ra|a oadar v|lreus a|ar |e|uar. 8||a alau operas| ra|a oadar v|lreus a|ar |e|uar. 8||a
oadar v|lreus |e|uar, ra|a oo|a rala a|ar oadar v|lreus |e|uar, ra|a oo|a rala a|ar
rergerul. rergerul.
8adar ge|al|rosa rerg|s| 1/5 oag|ar dar| vo|ure 8adar ge|al|rosa rerg|s| 1/5 oag|ar dar| vo|ure
oo|a rala dar rerja|ar|ar s|rar serla reroer||ar oo|a rala dar rerja|ar|ar s|rar serla reroer||ar
oerlu| pada rala posler|or. oerlu| pada rala posler|or.
8er|s| 99º a|r dar 1º |orporer |o|ager dar asar 8er|s| 99º a|r dar 1º |orporer |o|ager dar asar
r|a|uroral yarg reroer||ar oerlu| dar |ors|slers| r|r|p r|a|uroral yarg reroer||ar oerlu| dar |ors|slers| r|r|p
je| pada v|lreus |arera |erarpuarrya rerg||al oarya| je| pada v|lreus |arera |erarpuarrya rerg||al oarya|
a|r. a|r.
T|da| rergardurg perou|ur darar, lelap| rerdapal|ar T|da| rergardurg perou|ur darar, lelap| rerdapal|ar
rulr|s| dar| jar|rgar d| se||larrya. rulr|s| dar| jar|rgar d| se||larrya.
erjad| |eo|r ca|r dergar oerlaroarrya urur dar juga erjad| |eo|r ca|r dergar oerlaroarrya urur dar juga
dapal lerjad| pergerular. dapal lerjad| pergerular.
8TRUKTUR EK8TERNAL 8TRUKTUR EK8TERNAL
0R8lTA 0R8lTA
3lru|lur lu|arg yarg rerge||||rg| rala dar 3lru|lur lu|arg yarg rerge||||rg| rala dar
reroer||ar prole|s| pa||rg oesar pada rala reroer||ar prole|s| pa||rg oesar pada rala
lerulara urlu| segrer posler|or. lerulara urlu| segrer posler|or.
0|garoar|ar seoaga| p|rar|d 0|garoar|ar seoaga| p|rar|d
oerd|rd|rg erpal yarg oerd|rd|rg erpal yarg
oer|orvergers| |e arar oer|orvergers| |e arar
oe|a|arg. oe|a|arg.
0|rd|rg red|a| oro|la ||r| dar 0|rd|rg red|a| oro|la ||r| dar
|arar ler|ela| para|e| dar |arar ler|ela| para|e| dar
d|p|sar|ar o|er r|durg. d|p|sar|ar o|er r|durg.
vo|ure oro|la deWasa ||ra vo|ure oro|la deWasa ||ra--||ra ||ra
30 cc dar oo|a rala rarya 30 cc dar oo|a rala rarya
rererpal| se||lar 1/5 oag|ar rererpal| se||lar 1/5 oag|ar
ruargarrya. Lera| dar olol ruargarrya. Lera| dar olol
rererpal| oag|ar leroesarrya. rererpal| oag|ar leroesarrya.
3alu |ap|s las|a yarg 3alu |ap|s las|a yarg
d||era| dergar |apsu|a d||era| dergar |apsu|a
leror rerge||||rg| oo|a leror rerge||||rg| oo|a
rala dar| |orrea sarpa| rala dar| |orrea sarpa|
segrer posler|or dar segrer posler|or dar
rer|sar|ar rala dar| rer|sar|ar rala dar|
|era| oro|la. |era| oro|la.
0ro|la oerruourgar 0ro|la oerruourgar
dergar s|rus lrorla||s d| dergar s|rus lrorla||s d|
alas, s|rus ra|s|||ar|s d| alas, s|rus ra|s|||ar|s d|
oaWar serla s|rus oaWar serla s|rus
elro|da||s dar slero|da||s elro|da||s dar slero|da||s
d| red|a|. d| red|a|.
K0NJ&N0TlvA K0NJ&N0TlvA
erorar ru|osa l|p|s dar erorar ru|osa l|p|s dar
lrarsparar yarg re|ap|s| lrarsparar yarg re|ap|s|
oag|ar posler|or |e|opa| oag|ar posler|or |e|opa|
rala dar re||pal |e oo|a rala dar re||pal |e oo|a
rala urlu| re|ap|s| rala urlu| re|ap|s|
oag|ar arler|or oo|a rala oag|ar arler|or oo|a rala
sarpa| ||rous lerpal sarpa| ||rous lerpal
|orjurgl|va oeroalasar |orjurgl|va oeroalasar
dergar |orrea. dergar |orrea.
Korjurgl|va pa|peora: leroerlarg pada perru|aar Korjurgl|va pa|peora: leroerlarg pada perru|aar
posler|or ras|rg posler|or ras|rg--ras|rg |e|opa| rala. ras|rg |e|opa| rala.
Korjurgl|va ou|o|: Korjurgl|va yarg ler|ela| d| Korjurgl|va ou|o|: Korjurgl|va yarg ler|ela| d|
arler|or s||era. arler|or s||era.
Korjurgl|va pa|peora |eo|r leoa| dar|pada Korjurgl|va pa|peora |eo|r leoa| dar|pada
|orjurgl|va ou|o|. |orjurgl|va ou|o|.
Terpal oerlerurya |edua |orjurgl|va |r| d|seoul Terpal oerlerurya |edua |orjurgl|va |r| d|seoul
lorn|x/s,us on¡unr|v, lorn|x/s,us on¡unr|v,. .
Korjurgl|va reroer||ar prole|s| pada s||era dar Korjurgl|va reroer||ar prole|s| pada s||era dar
pe|urasar pada oo|a rala yarg d||a|u|ar o|er pe|urasar pada oo|a rala yarg d||a|u|ar o|er
|e|erjar ru|osa dar serosa. |e|erjar ru|osa dar serosa.
3ecara rorra| perou|ur darar pada |orjurgl|va 3ecara rorra| perou|ur darar pada |orjurgl|va
rerga|ar| |orslr||s| dar su||l d|||ral. 0||alas| rerga|ar| |orslr||s| dar su||l d|||ral. 0||alas|
perou|ur perou|ur--perou|ur darar dapal lerjad| o|er perou|ur darar dapal lerjad| o|er
oeroaga| |eadaar. oeroaga| |eadaar.
KEL0PAK ATA KEL0PAK ATA
3usurar |u||l yarg ra|us, 3usurar |u||l yarg ra|us,
l|p|s dar rudar l|p|s dar rudar
d|gera||ar. d|gera||ar.
Pada saal rerulup Pada saal rerulup
re||rdurg| rala dar| re||rdurg| rala dar|
rasu|rya oerda as|rg, rasu|rya oerda as|rg,
re||rdurg| caraya se|ara re||rdurg| caraya se|ara
l|dur dar reroarlu l|dur dar reroarlu
pergera|ar a|r rala urlu| pergera|ar a|r rala urlu|
rerjaga |e|eroapar rerjaga |e|eroapar
|orrea. |orrea.
8&L& ATA 8&L& ATA
Raroul l|p|s yarg Raroul l|p|s yarg
leroerlu| dar| 2 alau 3 leroerlu| dar| 2 alau 3
oar|s raroul |regu|er pada oar|s raroul |regu|er pada
oalas |e|opa| rala. oalas |e|opa| rala.
8u|u rala alas |eo|r 8u|u rala alas |eo|r
parjarg dar |eo|r oarya| parjarg dar |eo|r oarya|
dar| yarg d|oaWar dar dar| yarg d|oaWar dar
re|erg|urg |e alas, ou|u re|erg|urg |e alas, ou|u
rala oaWar re|erg|urg rala oaWar re|erg|urg
|e oaWar. |e oaWar.
8u|u rala sargal sers|l|l lerradap serlurar dar 8u|u rala sargal sers|l|l lerradap serlurar dar
re||rdurg| oo|a rala dar| deou alau parl||e| |ec||. re||rdurg| oo|a rala dar| deou alau parl||e| |ec||.
ALl3 ATA ALl3 ATA
L|palar |u||l yarg rereoa| L|palar |u||l yarg rereoa|
pada oag|ar alas oro|la pada oag|ar alas oro|la
yarg d|lulup| raroul yarg d|lulup| raroul
oeroerlu| gar|s. oeroerlu| gar|s.
e||rdurg| rala dar| e||rdurg| rala dar|
persp|ras| (|er|rgal) dar| persp|ras| (|er|rgal) dar|
dar rerarg|ap parl||e| dar rerarg|ap parl||e|
orgar|| dar arorgar||. orgar|| dar arorgar||.
APARAT&3 LAKRlALl3 APARAT&3 LAKRlALl3
Terd|r| alas g|ardu|a Terd|r| alas g|ardu|a
|a|r|ra||s dergar du|lus |a|r|ra||s dergar du|lus--
du|lusrya, |ara|||u|| du|lusrya, |ara|||u||
|a|r|ra|, sa|us |a|r|ra||s |a|r|ra|, sa|us |a|r|ra||s
dar du|lus raso|a|r|ra||s. dar du|lus raso|a|r|ra||s.
A|r rala d|produ|s| o|er A|r rala d|produ|s| o|er
|e|erjar |a|r|ra| yarg |e|erjar |a|r|ra| yarg
ler|ela| pada oag|ar ler|ela| pada oag|ar
lerpora| alas ras|rg lerpora| alas ras|rg--
ras|rg oro|l. ras|rg oro|l.
Terdapal 8 Terdapal 8--12 du|lus 12 du|lus
|a|r|ra||s yarg |a|r|ra||s yarg
rerga||r|ar a|r rala |e rerga||r|ar a|r rala |e
oag|ar alas dar |alera| oag|ar alas dar |alera|
lorr||s |orjurgl|va. lorr||s |orjurgl|va.
0ar| lorr||s super|or a|r 0ar| lorr||s super|or a|r
rala rerga||r |e da|ar rala rerga||r |e da|ar
,or|2, ,e ,or|2, ,e pada |arlus pada |arlus
oaWar, |erud|ar oaWar, |erud|ar punoru2 punoru2
(yarg lerdapal pada (yarg lerdapal pada
ras|rg ras|rg--ras|rg |arlus), ras|rg |arlus),
|ara|||u|| |a|r|ra||s, |e |ara|||u|| |a|r|ra||s, |e
da|ar sa|us |a|r|ra||s dar da|ar sa|us |a|r|ra||s dar
|erud|ar rasu| r|durg |erud|ar rasu| r|durg
re|a|u| du|lus re|a|u| du|lus
raso|a|r|ra||s. raso|a|r|ra||s.
A|r rala lerd|r| dar| 98º a|r, 1,5º NaC| A|r rala lerd|r| dar| 98º a|r, 1,5º NaC|
(reroer||ar rasa as|r pada a|r rala) dar ||soz|r (reroer||ar rasa as|r pada a|r rala) dar ||soz|r
(rerpurya| ele| arl| oa|ler|). (rerpurya| ele| arl| oa|ler|).
Furgs| a|r rala ada|ar rercuc| dar reroasar| Furgs| a|r rala ada|ar rercuc| dar reroasar|
perru|aar |orrea. perru|aar |orrea.
3aal |orrea rerjad| |er|rg, |ed|par rala dar 3aal |orrea rerjad| |er|rg, |ed|par rala dar
|e|opa| rala reroaWa se|ap|s ca|rar |a|r|ra| |e |e|opa| rala reroaWa se|ap|s ca|rar |a|r|ra| |e
se|urur rala. se|urur rala.
3e|res| dar| |e|erjar |a|r|ra| ulara d|p|cu o|er 3e|res| dar| |e|erjar |a|r|ra| ulara d|p|cu o|er
eros| alau |r|las| l|s|| dar reryeoao|ar a|rrala eros| alau |r|las| l|s|| dar reryeoao|ar a|rrala
rerga||r oer||rpar re|eWal| lep|ar pa|peora. rerga||r oer||rpar re|eWal| lep|ar pa|peora.
0T0T 0T0T
Terdapal Z olol vo|uler dar| oro|l, ê d|arlararya Terdapal Z olol vo|uler dar| oro|l, ê d|arlararya
dapal rerular oo|a rala pada oeoerapa per|rlar dapal rerular oo|a rala pada oeoerapa per|rlar
dar rergoord|ras| pergera|ar rala. dar rergoord|ras| pergera|ar rala.
1 dar| olol 1 dar| olol--olol olol
e|slrao|u|er lerseoul e|slrao|u|er lerseoul
ada|ar olol re|lus (|urus). ada|ar olol re|lus (|urus).
2 olol e|slrao|u|er yarg 2 olol e|slrao|u|er yarg
|a|r ada|ar olol oo|||. |a|r ada|ar olol oo|||.
Korlra|s| olol e|slrao|u|er Korlra|s| olol e|slrao|u|er
a|ar rerular rala dar a|ar rerular rala dar
olol olol--olol re|lus a|ar olol re|lus a|ar
rergeroa|||ar |e pos|s| rergeroa|||ar |e pos|s|
seru|a, saal rala seru|a, saal rala
oergera| secara lerpora|. oergera| secara lerpora|.
0lol 0lol- -olol oo||| rerpurya| olol oo||| rerpurya|
a|s| leroesar saal rala a|s| leroesar saal rala
oergera| secara rasa| oergera| secara rasa|
(reruju r|durg). (reruju r|durg).
0lol 0lol--olol re|lus |alera| dar olol re|lus |alera| dar
|rler|or oo||| rergorlro| |rler|or oo||| rergorlro|
pergera|ar rala |e alas. pergera|ar rala |e alas.
Addu|s| rala d||orlro| o|er Addu|s| rala d||orlro| o|er
olol re|lus red|a| dar olol re|lus red|a| dar
|rler|or. |rler|or.
0lol oo||| super|or 0lol oo||| super|or
rergorlro| pergera|ar rergorlro| pergera|ar
rala |eoaWar. rala |eoaWar.
0lol 0lol--olol |r| l|da| oe|erja secara oeoas lelap| olol |r| l|da| oe|erja secara oeoas lelap|
oerruourgar dergar olol yarg rer|rou||ar oerruourgar dergar olol yarg rer|rou||ar
pergera|ar |e arar yarg oer|aWarar. pergera|ar |e arar yarg oer|aWarar.
Pergera|ar rala yarg ra|us d|gera||ar o|er Pergera|ar rala yarg ra|us d|gera||ar o|er
|orlra|s| dar re|a|sas| olol |orlra|s| dar re|a|sas| olol--olol yarg oerruourgar olol yarg oerruourgar
salu sara |a|r. salu sara |a|r.
0lol oro|l |e 0lol oro|l |e--Z ada|ar Z ada|ar
|evalor pa|peora, oe|erja |evalor pa|peora, oe|erja
rerge|evas| |e|opa| rala rerge|evas| |e|opa| rala
alas. alas.
0lol |r| l|da| rasu| |e 0lol |r| l|da| rasu| |e
da|ar oo|a rala ser|rgga da|ar oo|a rala ser|rgga
l|da| o|sa rerggera||ar l|da| o|sa rerggera||ar
oo|a rala. oo|a rala.
3ARAF 3ARAF
0lol e|slrao|u|er 0lol e|slrao|u|er
d|persaral| o|er |rar|a| d|persaral| o|er |rar|a|
o|u|orolor|s (N.lll), o|u|orolor|s (N.lll),
lro|r|ear|s (N.lv) dar lro|r|ear|s (N.lv) dar
aoduser (N.vl). aoduser (N.vl).
3aral rala (N.ll) ada|ar 3aral rala (N.ll) ada|ar
saral perg||ralar yarg saral perg||ralar yarg
rergruourg|ar d|s|us rergruourg|ar d|s|us
opl||us |e ola|. opl||us |e ola|.
8ag|ar olla|r||us dar| lr|ger|ra| (N.v) 8ag|ar olla|r||us dar| lr|ger|ra| (N.v)
rerg|rervas| oag|ar sersor| dar| rel|e|s oer|ed|p, rerg|rervas| oag|ar sersor| dar| rel|e|s oer|ed|p,
rel|e|s |r| lerargsarg j||a |orrea d|serlur. rel|e|s |r| lerargsarg j||a |orrea d|serlur.
Nervus las|a||s (N.vll) rerpersaral| |e|erjar Nervus las|a||s (N.vll) rerpersaral| |e|erjar
|a|r|ra| dar olol |a|r|ra| dar olol--olol yarg ler||oal da|ar perulupar olol yarg ler||oal da|ar perulupar
|e|opa| rala. |e|opa| rala.
PE8&L&l PE8&L&l
Arler| olla|r||us (caoarg Arler| olla|r||us (caoarg
arler| |arol|s |rlerra) ada|ar arler| |arol|s |rlerra) ada|ar
arler| ulara yarg arler| ulara yarg
reryup|a| slru|lur d| da|ar reryup|a| slru|lur d| da|ar
oro|l. oro|l.
Arler| serlra| rel|ra ada|ar salu dar| yarg pa||rg |ec|| lelap| Arler| serlra| rel|ra ada|ar salu dar| yarg pa||rg |ec|| lelap|
rerupa|ar caoarg pa||rg perl|rg dar| arle| olla|r||us rerupa|ar caoarg pa||rg perl|rg dar| arle| olla|r||us
|arera oerlarggurg jaWao reryup|a| darar |e rel|ra. |arera oerlarggurg jaWao reryup|a| darar |e rel|ra.
Arler| s|||ar|s reryup|a| s||era, |oro|d, oadar s|||ar|s dar Arler| s|||ar|s reryup|a| s||era, |oro|d, oadar s|||ar|s dar
|r|s. |r|s.
0ra|rase vera re|a|u| dua vera olla|r||us. 0ra|rase vera re|a|u| dua vera olla|r||us.
al|us ê:22 al|us ê:22--23 23
ala ada|ar pe||la luour. J||a ralaru oa||, ala ada|ar pe||la luour. J||a ralaru oa||,
lerarg|ar se|urur luourru, j||a ralaru lerarg|ar se|urur luourru, j||a ralaru
jaral, ge|ap|ar se|urur luourru. Jad| j||a jaral, ge|ap|ar se|urur luourru. Jad| j||a
lerarg yarg ada padaru ge|ap, oelapa lerarg yarg ada padaru ge|ap, oelapa
ge|aprya |ege|apar |lu. ge|aprya |ege|apar |lu.
TERlA KA3ll TERlA KA3ll

%
$97:9:7 ,9,  39073,  89073,

$%#&%&#%# 
,20907-4,2,9, :7,30- .2 %0709,5,/,-,,3 ,39074747-9 %07/7/,7 ,58,3:,7 ,58,3%03, ,58,3,,2 

 

3203.7$07.35. 5:9 03025.3 :.3.3.58.9 -07./.58.7 07:5.58.73.73.9..3  . 907/7 /.31-74:8 . $# .9. .34730./.2.

./..3/0.3.5./.3 54890747/3/3-4.    .9.38.807.2.-.47. !.:33 5.: .9.8./. /0548902.9 202-07.73.

9 .8:07/. 03025.3-078.9.35.2-:3 /03.3807.385.7.3 97. # .58..3./..

7.390747 /3/3-4.9. /.22 .3.-.209077.2.209077../03.3 /.

7 807.3 4730.  . 807. 909. 2-:8 !07902:.3 /.3  4730.. .3:9.3 807. /03.5 90-.3 !07902:. 909.5 0- 90-.3:9.

8 02.-./. 5. 5.7:8 8038 3.9 .38./. ./. 2-:8 . .3 5:9 3.3.3 5.38. /00307. ./.

58.58.8 . $9742. 9078:8:3 .3.9.02039 3/490:2 3/490:2 .3      590:2 590:2 02-7.3  . 08. 02-7. 42.3 $9742.02039 08.4730.3.

3-07.9..0.58.2.38.58.7/.8:07/.378 ./.33-078474/  . &.58.3 -075203 ..3 . 207:5.3  . .58.30/:.3 %03.58./. .7 -4.

.7.5840 80-. 3:970307093.39. .. /. ./.3.7010839073./.7.3-..3903.3203:5.7807.3.7..3-08. 078-.4.502-::/.0.58./.3...3907-08..807.. 90709.970:8 03.     #  02-7.99:.3 7093.7/.

:048 :24720.378 !.78 .5.88 /. /.3/.3807.9574808:88.5072:.:574808/. 203.3203.3474/ /03.70907/.1 .3.3/:3502-::/.-:98./.3.7.380708 !74808:83-...2475:8 8.     #!&$ $# 03:-:3.8.7.

-: .9 ..:  .25.700.8079.90789-7: .3.-: .: .3-.390747/.-:..9.9. 203.3 ..7.3-07.3.0 .73.32.3475:8 8.3 207:5.40. . #$ !075.

8 5:5-07.8: . / -0. :2.7.3 202-039: 3.7..32....3 5:5-07../: 907.3 907-:.3 038..  / /.8 808:..7.32.9 3/.8: . .. //05.3 4730. $.  !:5 %0709.  ::7. .

9.5.5./.3. :3878203.39.8:02.32..7.78./.3-.3-078.95.3.4730.9.207../.5072:./.91958803..7:.3807 !.97..207.    78202-.9 74-0.3.80./.337870.9: .5.:2.../.  .3038..:04:8 :247.995070.7.778200.203...390747/.3.!4890747 .703.9:7:2.9.2./-..

2.3  .3 -0339025.58.7.58.:8/.2    #% $97:9:7958 .9807. ..3 0..3/.3 .1459//897-:8.58-.9 807..9 8.9 -0339025.9807.

 54890747/3/3-4, 2,9, $0.,7,089073,/-,9,8 40474//,3807,

 

$0.,7,39073,/-,9,8 40202-7,3 ,4/0,/,7-,/,3 ;970:8 078502-::/,7, ,3203:5,3:978 0,73,37093,/,3 /:,0,8149470805947 ,3/80-:974/ ,3/80-:974/ -,9,3 /,3.4308 /,3.4308 07:.:9

   

#  071:38203:7,3/07,,9:23,8 907,3  /,3-079,3:3,,-907,/,55,3/,3,3 507107 :3,,3,5,-,390389,8.,,,703/,/,3 202-07,3,2-,7,3,-:
202-07,3,2-,7,3,-:
,-: $,3,9-,3,/-,,3/05,37093,

5..3.07.203.350..374/4583 8:.7./25:8897 .38.9: 803...8574903/.35203/:-.3805.503..74903.. &39:1:383/507:. .9. /.. 803.9..35203 .-:98..3807.7.9075.18038478 203::/.9..7.374/4583 &39:1:383/507:.3.   03:-.39078:8:3./..23 .203.3/49..3-07.3.

/.0..500-../.9 -07.32.3.-./...5 .30.3/8079.3. 2030-.0.7.22.. !..23/..7 .3050.3574903 2030-.-.30.9.59.5.30--./.9./..35:5 202:33.3 74/ 2033..3808047.85.8: 0/.5 74/4583/70839088/.3/.9/./..

 ...-.374/4583.3202-.9./03. ..3050..374/ /8079.32030-..59.-./.3.3.9.907..3050..3 5030..8907.374/ 503:7.5.3 503:7.8-... /.3/80-.3..8:2.3.3202..340 5020.35:5.

/.9:7./.-907.4305.5503.9:23.3 :7.30-  :9.    071:382033.3 -079.3.3:3.30- :9.74//.9:7093. %07/.8..3503.73..9..380397. /.9.8/.3/07.5.  .9.

5:9207.3/.23.. 7025.5.  &&$ !% %0709.07.5..73.7093.9 /8:8459:8.9. 2:/.3 548907472./. .3 207:5../. /. -07.907/.-. 2:/.

5 83. -3/8549  .3/:3807.39/. 203.80 80149470805947 /.703./.7././..35./.803891907.3/80-:980-. 8:8459..1 9.3.-:98. 99-:9.3 8:8459.3 .80 9.7 .35.

-.20907 22 207:5.3/.8:39: 20.3.3 902547.907.3 ./.0:33.9.30.2:/...:90. 4. -39:33 -07/.5. !. .0.9 .:../8:8459 907/.35./.70.  207.3/80-:92.07.

3 .3.:9907-08.3 . 9.0.3 37:8.. .9.8 9025..2 /80-:914..9907.3/.2..9 907.3/.80397.2 503. . ..3.:9  -07:7.7 .-./0-:9.3/.380397..0/.:.380397./5.5..

:7017.-.7017.-0-07..8...3.042-./.912..88. 202-.305. :048:247 038.9.912../..7....7017.9  $97:9:73/80-:920/.3042-.3.5897:9:72030-.. $97:9:73/80-:920/.3'970:8 :24:7 $09.8  205:94730.: 897:9:7/03. ..9.5.3.25.##% .07093.33.9./07.3-07.320.9.

/.3 -078. 203025.2-:3 /03.  # .35.7.9/.3 97.9 .58.385.3807.

.-.3..3907472.9.

5202 4380397.9..8./03.9.909.574903 :70.30- 703/.3./.9/.847-.3.7.3:48.  & $& # .3 548907472.30- 938079.9.35..3073. .320387:.390747/.82. 425488807:5.9 57:.

9.39.378 #:.354890747 907-039.3.78/. .3 .3 038.7.4730.39.7.390747 2.907-039.3 . /.  #:.

2.3.:7.-0:.7.8.3.54890747200...207.023 .28.7/.3.207.9 -..  :048:247/574/:8907:8 20307:840.8.0 /.3:3./ /. .3/80-:9 97..3/80-:9.87:07 .7200.7 .390747 /.023 .9 5:50/..3.0348.507.088:88.78 :048:2470:.3/80-:9.2574.3202-:.3.330:.03.

5.888902  803.3 397..5/.3.3 .7.9.. .72.3 .90. 087:.:048:247/. 4389.380.7.3.32030:.4:07909.3.9 /5079.

3/.38025:73./.3 -43.385.73./.  $ $97:9:787:07 :3. %0-.08 .3.722 /.257 97.809.3./-0.8:.3.970:8  .378 / /05.3-.7./...7 9/. -07.2090722  90709..

39.9/.847-.3..39..943 8.3.2.3.943 907/. %07/7.2. ./.5..3:9.73.9/.82. .3./.3 8.33.:5:39070/:8   .7./ 0-.2-039: 90748/.75.3/:3.3:9./.847-.380/92307.73.39:-:.73.8.7.:20-93/038.39:-: /..9./.7/..73.3 .3574903 90793 /.73.9/.3 /.8.3-.

78.3 200.390747/.3. %95:8.35489047 /80-:954:8.3 .95072:.390747 /.88 .90/:.354:854890747  /.54:8 90780-:9..

3/.703./.3 /90..2038:8503847:2 43:.7 /05./..3038.909.9.340.5-07. ..3/90.2-.93.02-7.340..970:8:247 /.78/.3807  574808:88.3 /./.3958 .:048 :247 /.3203:9:55072:.  038.39:343:..: .7-0. /9025.

3 ./.907/7/.3203/:38:-89.970:8 /..7-.58:5.3/3../.-..0-.3:.4/0./.7.58./.3 5072:.3.7 -071:38203:-.3.3./.02-:3/-.-. .38038..:048:247 47908 :0:85. !072:.354890747038.-039: 038.3203025.3.3038.91488.970:8 038.3/.-..2     .390747/./.

14:83/80-:9 . 038.7.383.3038.:5:5 .33/. :7..9 .9.8:20..7.7.8   ..202-..3038.30.-07..9.:.:.5.3.5072:.8.9:07093.32.3 202:33..8.9/14:8./:-0714:85.424/.7/.:39: 203:-.: !74808507:-.9:7.4-0/0./.02-:3.

8 .43:.: .3203.9.78 -074397.2-.2038:8503847:2 . 003:3.8/.3.78 ..203 8:8503847:2203..3 ..3038.320303038..8/2:33.703.2 70.2:8::88. . .8.  424/.340 2:8::88.3/03/./.

-5.918038././.807./.3/. !.3203.:2:7 !..8.9.-08. %/./.8  !07:-.7.-07.25781078/.8 -07.3.8 !.390747:7.3.7. $1.02-:3 /-.30-55  -07.38038.38:-89...109:8 038. 5708-45.0:33./0.3038.71/038.-079.:3.3/354890747/...39:35.3.73./3././0- 07..3:3.:2:7 .:8./0-07..203.5072:.:2:7 !.9307 502-::/..33-079./.2-.7/./.907.      .

90.3. ./.940038.970:8  7:.3 20203:7:.33.7.038.3.3 7093./.4/0..3 .4743:39: /9025.  '%#&$ 078.39.. -07-039:.9348. .3/05.3 /0340202-7.

-.2.2038.-.703.9.82../.3.970:8.9348...30:. -.202-7.3 20307:9 .3./.. .50.3.:2.:4507..9./.-4.970:80:.4/0.30. 5.7 .97.7 2...

383.3 -039:5.54890747  .7.4:20 -4../.9.202-07.-.7.2.78079.2.3/.3203.9../.

3    .02.3:.8..7 %/..73.2-.7/.5.970:8. 909.7.5203/.3-079.73./0-.3/:3502-::/.3-039:/.2 .:743.03/.9.3.703.3 3:978/.9.3202-07.3. /.3/809. 03.203.3.33.342543034.7.9-.25:. 078.203.9907./50307:9./.7/03.:2:7/.5.343889038275 05. .

35749085.3 202-07.9.3-08.9.$%#&%&#$%#  #% $97:9:79:.75././. 907:9.3.2.3203032.2.:39:8020354890747 .

./0..47-9.8.57.7.9.7.3 /58..3 3/320/.3 -0743.0/.7.390709.3.3.340/:3 '4:2047-9.3 .7/.070380./.3-4.5.380-.9809.  ..2.8.2/ -07/3/3025. -0.9..7. 7.2-. 203025.7.   . '4:2047-9./0.7.

3 7:.-.34949 203025.33.3.73. 02.9-..3907-08. ../.

3 2028.3 /03.58:.581./03. 8020354890747/./.3.32.47-9./..9.9.8. 2.7 02. 9034320303-4. $. .25.8.74730..9:.

 .381034/.383:817439.8/ .8/.8.3 /03..8 83:82.8 /20/.83:8 0924/. 7-9.9.8079.78/ -.-07:-:3.

. 2.7.3205.3.32:48.2-:89025.25.-07-.  &%' 02-7.9 43:39.:39:20. 2.9.385.3 97.90-4..3 /03.8.354890747045.9.958/. 8.9..2./.3. .9.58 -.390747-4.320.58 -.34730.

/....3/80-:9 1473.50-7.390747807.-:- %025. 43:39.907-039.0/:.-:-43:39.0-90-. 43:39.3 548907472...2.390709.35..43:39.5.50-7././ ..83 2.9-07902:3.83 548907472.75.    43:39.9./.5.5072:. 43:39..83045.

. 1473.:843:39.8.

:843:39.8. ..

8./.9907./..5.38:9/.  43:39.7..0.43:39./. 203.340 003.807.7.2.:..9.8 502-:: 502-:: 502-::/.-4.35749085.5./.7./.3 ../40 -07-././.502-::/.2438978/..3472.202-07.3/.9 . $0..3 50:2.9.72:48.380748..35.

 9/:7/.39: 50707.8.83  203/:3.3  !.9203:9:5 203/:32./.32:/.80.5.:39: 203..72.9...8:3..3.3. /07./.9.:8  958/...   !% $:8:3.2.3:9.7 2.3202-.3 4730..-03/..002-. .

3 907-039:/.3/. ::2./.2-:9958.3 2003:30.80- 5.9..8045. -.7.: -.9.-.787. .3..2-:970:075.9..9.3.9..  &&% #.2003:3 0-.9.7.2./.30--. /.3/-.8 -:: 2.9.

 ::2.:5.7/0-:.3 203/:3-4.9.8.58039:./. .9803891907.2.7900.9./.9.3/.3.

2-:9 -07-039:.847-9.3.790 47.3/9:9:57.-. . /.3 .9 /. 5.55.347.9.3.32030-./.3:9.78 03/:32./.9.7 507857..8 073.3/.3.9.  $% 5.3203.

3.3/:9:83.:8.72.8 /.84.: .72. .8/03.72.3/:9:8 /:9:83. 8.72.3/:.8. . !#%&$#$ %07/7.8/03.8 .3/:9:8 .72.9.

 1473843:39. .0 -..3.3.9.  72.9.-.9.82..5.7.8347-9 %07/..3.83 2.3 203./574/:840 003..72.3 90709.7.8.9.82..9 /:9:8 .5.8/.72.3 902547..5.9 %07/.9.907.83 902547.72./.

83 2.72.7 2.0 5..9...84.:8. 02:/.39:8 -.83.203.39:8  .72.5.28.8 0 /.9:2 02:/./.83 2.9:2 ..70/.:.3 02:/.8/.8 .8:/:3 20.3.35:3..2 .32.7147388:50747.35:3. .3907/..72.72. 2.95./.:/:9:8 3.

 . 202-07.010. 72.7  ./.8.8.203.39-. /.../.9.9.835.72..907/7/.7. 5072:.907 :38.3842 2025:3.9.3202-.37...:.34730./.72.

9.9.0 80:7:2.7-0725.3.7003.:40 0248.80.:9.50-7.9.2./.  ..9.:79.2. $./5.-.7.818/./073 0/5.35.3 045.202-. 203.9905..200.9.58.32030-. $0708/.203..72.7.94730.72.32.3.72.

94949.3203447/3.9.-0-07.747-9 /.50739.5..3./.9.850707. /.5.2.5.39.7-4. /.9202:9. % % %07/.7.5.32.4:907/. .

9.4:07./.7.849490897.3 4949 4949 4949709:8.49494- 4397.9..74949 4949 0897.72.80.././. 8.   /.3 ....902547. ..305488 802:.. -0707.74949 /.4949709:8 :7:8 49490897.4:07 .3.4:0790780-:9 .3202:9.92.3 20302-.

32.8 //:82..7.78..92./.8907-08.80.0.9..9. 949 49494-2025:3. 203::/:3 949 949 4949709:8.907.9.9. .3 3107474-20343974 50707.3 310747    ./4397440 4949709:820/.8./.3. -0707.

 9494-8:50747 2034397450707.. .9..3 2.0-.

32.8909..5 -07:-:3.8.80.30.2...84949 4397.7..84949 4949..7.3-07.3  .3.8/.32032-:.370.9.370.-0-.34949..8.-007.3-07:-:3.340 4397.3/03.:8/07.3.9:8.8/.3  !0707.3 50707..3 8..  949 949 494939/.

2-4..20307.8 94939/.9.9475..-8.50-7.2. 0.8:0 /.9.2.3 -4. .2.. . 9/...8045.9.  94947-90 94947-90 . 20300.9.803. -007./.2.

-/:803  ' $.3/8:8 459:8049. 4:4249478    9740.9.7.3 .   .7..3./.1407.9. 8.  $# 9490897. .7.3.3 203:-:3.1503.12.4:07 /5078.78  ' /.

/.3 045.38.1003..8./.  '  203307.770108-070/5  701083907..3419..9/.2503:9:5.72.7 .3803847/.2.9.797023.4730.:81.3.7.8-.34949 .72..2:8/.3907-.  .8  ' 2025078. ./8039: 07.34949 4949.

 . !&& 7907419..2 47-9 .3 203:5.. .7907:9.-.897:9:7//.2:8 .749839073..7907.3 .2../.

35.78203:5..7.35.-.7.8./.30.2:8   .9:/. 79078.07093.-203:5. 474/ -.20. 790780397..2:8 .807..80.-079.3:3.350393/.3.7093.03.3 78 7.78/.:/:.419.../.790419./.5 207:5.909.03.38..7.3.703.

/.9.2: .9 0.80:7:9:-:2: .00.5.5 -09.3./.5.509..9:8  .2:-. 907.9.2.80:7:9:-:2: ..2:0.5.. 0.9:8 .39: ././.9:-: .53.3..5.9.2.3.  907.

%#$ .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful