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Fisika Besaran Turunan

Fisika Besaran Turunan

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-luas bujur sangkar -keceptan -percepatan -gya -usaha -energi kinetik - '' potensial -tekana -daya -muatan listrik -potensial

listrik -kapasitas kalor -hambatan listrik -modulus elastik -tetapan pegas -luas -bearat -masa jenis -berat jenis -momentum -implus -frekuensi -energi kalor -debid -tetapanumumgas -kuefissien muai panjang -klor jnis -mdan listrik -mdan magned -koefisien muai ruang - ' luas . Luas = [L2] 2. Volume = [L3] 3. Massa jenis = [ML-3] 4. Kecepatan = [LT-1] 5. Percepatan = [LT-2] 6. Gaya = [MLT-2] 7. Usaha = [ML2T-2] 8. Daya = [ML2T-3] 9. Energi kinetik = [ML2T-2] 10. Energi potensial = [ML2T-2]

11. Tekanan = [ML-1T-2] 12. Momen gaya = [ML2T-2] 13. Momentum = [MLT-1] 14. Momentum sudut = [ML2T-1] 15. Impuls = [MLT-1] 16. Tegangan listrik = [ML2T-3I-1] 17. Hambatan listrik = [ML2T-3I-2]

Besaran Turunan dan Satuannya Dalam Ilmu Fisika - Fisika
Sat, 13/05/2006 - 7:39pm ² godam64 Besaran Turunan adalah besaran yang terbentuk dari satu atau lebih besaran pokok yang ada. Besaran adalah segala sesuatu yang memiliki nilai dan dapat dinyatakan dengan angka. Misalnya adalah luas yang merupakan hasil turunan satuan panjang dengan satuan meter persegi atau m pangkat 2 (m^2). Luas didapat dari mengalikan panjang dengan panjang. Berikut ini adalah berbagai contoh besaran turunan sesuai dengan sistem internasional / SI yang diturunkan dari sistem MKS (meter - kilogram - sekon/second) : - Besaran turunan energi satuannya joule dengan lambang J - Besaran turunan gaya satuannya newton dengan lambang N - Besaran turunan daya satuannya watt dengan lambang W - Besaran turunan tekanan satuannya pascal dengan lambang Pa - Besaran turunan frekuensi satuannya Hertz dengan lambang Hz - Besaran turunan muatan listrik satuannya coulomb dengan lambang C - Besaran turunan beda potensial satuannya volt dengan lambang V - Besaran turunan hambatan listrik satuannya ohm dengan lambang ohm - Besaran turunan kapasitas kapasitor satuannya farad dengan lambang F - Besaran turunan fluks magnet satuannya tesla dengan lambang T - Besaran turunan induktansi satuannya henry dengan lambang H - Besaran turunan fluks cahaya satuannya lumen dengan lambang ln - Besaran turunan kuat penerangan satuannya lux dengan lambang lx
y

fisika

energi satuannya joule dengan lambang J 2 gaya satuannya newton dengan lambang N 3 daya satuannya watt dengan lambang W 4 tekanan satuannya pascal dengan lambang Pa 5 frekuensi satuannya Hertz dengan lambang Hz 6 muatan listrik satuannya coulomb dengan lambang C

7 beda potensial satuannya volt dengan lambang V 8 hambatan listrik satuannya ohm dengan lambang ohm 9 kapasitas kapasitor satuannya farad dengan lambang F 10 fluks magnet satuannya tesla dengan lambang T 11 induktansi satuannya henry dengan lambang H 12 fluks cahaya satuannya lumen dengan lambang ln 13 kuat penerangan satuannya lux dengan lambang lx 14 kecepatan satuannya m/s 15 percepatan satuannya m/s^2 16 luas lambangnya m^2 17 volume lambangnya m^3 18 massa jenis lambangnya kg/m^3

Besaran merupakan segala sesuatu yang dapat diukur dan dinyatakan dengan angka, misalnya panjang, massa, waktu, luas, berat, volume, kecepatan, dll. Warna, indah, cantik, bukan merupakan besaran karena tidak dapat diukur dan dinyatakan dengan angka. Besaran dibagi menjadi dua yaitu besaran pokok dan besaran turunan. BESARAN POKOK Besaran Pokok adalah besaran yang satuannya telah ditetapkan terlebih dahulu dan tidak diturunkan dari besaran lain. Ada tujuh besaran pokok dalam sistem Satuan Internasional yaitu Panjang, Massa, Waktu, Suhu, Kuat Arus, Jumlah molekul, Intensitas Cahaya. Panjang adalah dimensi suatu benda yang menyatakan jarak antar ujung. Panjang dapat dibagi menjadi tinggi, yaitu jarak vertikal, serta lebar, yaitu jarak dari satu sisi ke sisi yang lain, diukur pada sudut tegak lurus terhadap panjang benda. Dalam ilmu fisika dan teknik, kata ³panjang´ biasanya digunakan secara sinonim dengan ³jarak´, dengan simbol ³l´ atau ³L´ (singkatan dari bahasa Inggris length). Massa adalah sifat fisika dari suatu benda, yang secara umum dapat digunakan untuk mengukur banyaknya materi yang terdapat dalam suatu benda. Massa merupakan konsep utama dalam mekanika klasik dan subyek lain yang berhubungan. Waktu menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (1997) adalah seluruh rangkaian saat ketika proses, perbuatan atau keadaan berada atau berlangsung. Dalam hal ini, skala waktu merupakan interval antara dua buah keadaan/kejadian, atau bisa merupakan lama berlangsungnya suatu kejadian. Tiap masyarakat memilki pandangan yang relatif berbeda tentang waktu yang mereka jalani. Sebagai contoh: masyarakat Barat melihat waktu sebagai sebuah garis lurus (linier). Konsep garis lurus tentang waktu diikuti dengan terbentuknya konsep tentang urutan kejadian. Dengan kata lain sejarah manusia dilihat sebagai sebuah proses perjalanan dalam sebuah garis waktu sejak zaman dulu, zaman sekarang dan zaman yang akan datang. Berbeda dengan

masyarakat Barat, masysrakat Hindu melihat waktu sebagai sebuah siklus yang terus berulang tanpa akhir. Suhu menunjukkan derajat panas benda. Mudahnya, semakin tinggi suhu suatu benda, semakin panas benda tersebut. Secara mikroskopis, suhu menunjukkan energi yang dimiliki oleh suatu benda. Setiap atom dalam suatu benda masing-masing bergerak, baik itu dalam bentuk perpindahan maupun gerakan di tempat berupa getaran. Makin tingginya energi atom-atom penyusun benda, makin tinggi suhu benda tersebut. Arus listrik adalah banyaknya muatan listrik yang mengalir tiap satuan waktu. Muatan listrik bisa mengalir melalui kabel atau penghantar listrik lainnya. Pada zaman dulu, Arus konvensional didefinisikan sebagai aliran muatan positif, sekalipun kita sekarang tahu bahwa arus listrik itu dihasilkan dari aliran elektron yang bermuatan negatif ke arah yang sebaliknya. Jumlah molekul Intensitas Cahaya

BESARAN TURUNAN Besaran turunan adalah besaran yang satuannya diturunkan dari besaran pokok atau besaran yang didapat dari penggabungan besaran-besaran pokok. Contoh besaran turunan adalah Berat, Luas, Volume, Kecepatan, Percepatan, Massa Jenis, Berat jenis, Gaya, Usaha, Daya, Tekanan, Energi Kinetik, Energi Potensial, Momentum, Impuls, Momen inersia, dll. Dalam fisika, selain tujuh besaran pokok yang disebutkan di atas, lainnya merupakan besaran turunan. Besaran Turunan selengkapnya akan dipelajari pada masing-masing pokok bahasan dalam pelajaran fisika. Untuk lebih memperjelas pengertian besaran turunan, perhatikan beberapa besaran turunan yang satuannya diturunkan dari satuan besaran pokok berikut ini. Luas = panjang x lebar = besaran panjang x besaran panjang =mxm = m2 Volume = panjang x lebar x tinggi = besaran panjang x besaran panjang x besaran Panjang =mxmxm

= m3 Kecepatan = jarak / waktu = besaran panjang / besaran waktu =m/s

1 are (a) = 100 m2
1 bar = 10*6 dyn/cm*2 1 bbl (us) =.158987 m3 1 bbl (oil) = 34.973 imp gal 1 Boiler Horsepower = 33.520 BTU per hour = 9.804 kilowatts 1 British Termal Unit = .2519 kilocalaries 1 cable = 120 fathoms = 219.456 metres 1 Calorie = 4.185 joules 1 cedar square = 100sqft 1 CHAIN = 66ft 1 circle = 2 pi radians = 360 degrees I chain = 100 links, = 20.1168 metres, = 4 rods, = 22 yards 1 cm = .3937 in = 0.01 metres 1 cord = 128 cuft.=2.410 m3 = .85 cunits, = 78 cu ft solid softwood (sd .60938) =70 cu ft solid hardwood (sd .54688) 1 cubic foot = .028 cubic metre = 6.229 imp gal 1 cubic metre = 6.29 bbls = 220 imp gals. = 35.32 cubic feet 1 cubic yard = .765 m3 1 cunit = 100 cu ft, sawlogs = 500FBM chips = 1.092 B.D. Tons softwood chips = 1.730 B.D. Tons hardwood ex poplar chips = 1.226 B.D. Tons poplar 1 dynöcm*2 = 0.1 Newton ¶ metre*2 = 9.869 ¶ 10*5 atmospheres 1 exa = 10E18 = E 1 fathom = 6 feet = 1.8288 metres 1 foot = 12 inches = .3048 m = 30.48 cm 1 foot per second = 44ö30 miles per hour 1 giga = 10E9 = G 1 gravity = g = 32.174 ft/sec/sec = 2.72407 km/h/sec = 9.80665 m/sec/sec 1 gram = .03527 oz 1 HECTARE = 2.47 acres = 10000 square metres 1 Horsepower = 550 foot pounds per second = 42.40 BTU per min = 746 Watts 1 IMPGAL = 4.54609 L = .1603 cubic feet

= ö.8327 US gallon 1 joule = work of 1 Newton ¶ 1 metre 1 kilo = 10E3 = k 1 kilogram = 1000 grams = 9.80665 Newtons =kgf 1 kilogram = kg = 2.204622 lbs 1 kilojoule = 0.948 BTU 1 kilowatt = 1.34 Imperial horspower 1 kwh (kilowat hour) = 3412 BTU = 860 kilocalaries = 3.6 MJ 1 kip = 4.448222 kN = 1000 pounds 1 km (kilometer) = .6214 mi 1 knot = 1.151 mph, 1.853 km/h 1 Litre = 1.057 quart = 0.26417762 US gal = 61.02 cubic ins. 1 mega = 10E6 = M 1 meter = 3.281 ft 1 meter/sec = .277778 km/h 1 mile = 10 chains, = 1760 yards, 5280 feet, = 1609.344 metres, = 1.609 km 1 mile per hr =30.44 feet/sec = 1.6023 km/hr = .44508 m/sec 1 Newton = force = .224809 pounds force 1 Newton = 1 kg mass accelerated 1 m/sec/sec 1 Newton = .10197 kg force\1 N/m3 = .10197 kg/m3 1 N/m3 = .0063649 pounds per cubic ft 1 oz = 28.413062 mL 1 oz. = 28.35 gm 1 peta = 10E15 = P 1 pound force = 4.448222 Newtons 1 pound mass (avidupois) = .45359237 kg 1 psi = 6.894757 kilopascals 1 pound/cubic ft = 16.02 kg/m3 = 157.1 N/m3 1 rad = 180ö ù1 = 57.29577951 degrees 1 radian = 57.30 degrees 1 rod = 5.5 yards, = 0.25 chains 1 Sphere = 4 ¶ ù1 = 12.56637061 sterad I Stone = 14 pounds 1 tera = 10E12 = T 1 Tonne = 1.102311 Tons, approx = 1 ¶ 2200 lbs Long Ton 1 USGAL = 3.785412 L 1 cubic metre of water = 2205 pounds = 1 Tonne *** Energy content of Fuels Electricity - net 3.6MJ/kWh, 3413 BTU/kWh (34.13%eff)- gross 10.551MJ/kWh, 10000 BTU/kWh Natural gas = 36 - 39 (37.2) MJ/m3 Propane = 26.6 MJ/m3 1 cubic metre of oil = 38 - 41 GJ

End to date: 051216, ams

Physical Quantities
Quantity Length or Distance Time Mass Area Volume Density Velocity Acceleration Momentum Force Weight Pressure or Stress Definition fundamental fundamental fundamental distance2 distance3 mass / volume distance / time velocity / time mass × velocity mass × acceleration mass × acceleration of gravity force / area Formula d t m A = d2 V = d3 d = m/V v = d/t a = v/t p = m·v F = m·a W = m·g p = F/A E = F·d KE = m·v2/2 PE = m·g·h P = E/t I = F·t S = E·t S = p·d Units m (meter) s (second) kg (kilogram) m2 m3 kg/m3 m/s c (speed of light) m/s2 kg·m/s Dimensions L (Length) T (Time) M (Mass) L2 L3 M/L3 L/T L/T2 ML/T

N (newton) = kg·m/s2 ML/T2 Pa (pascal) = N/m2 = M/LT2 kg/(m·s2) J (joule) = N·m = kg·m2/s2 W (watt) = J/s = kg·m2/s3 N·s = kg·m/s J·s = kg·m2/s h (quantum of action) ° (degree), rad (radian), rev 360° = 2 rad = 1 rev cyc (cycles) Hz (hertz) = cyc/s = 1/s rad/s = 1/s rad/s2 = 1/s2 kg·m2

force × distance Energy or Work mass × velocity2 / 2 Kinetic Energy mass × acceleration of Potential Energy gravity × height Power Impulse Action Angle Cycles Frequency Angular Velocity Angular Acceleration Moment of Inertia energy / time force × time energy × time momentum × distance fundamental fundamental cycles / time angle / time angular velocity / time mass × radius2

ML2/T2

ML2/T3 ML/T ML2/T dimensionless dimensionless 1/T 1/T 1/T2 ML2

n f = n/t = /t = /t I = m·r2

Angular Momentum Torque or Moment Temperature Heat Entropy Electric Charge +/Current Voltage or Potential Resistance Capacitance Inductance Electric Field Electric Flux Magnetic Field Magnetic Flux

radius × momentum moment of inertia × angular velocity radius × force moment of inertia × angular acceleration fundamental heat energy heat / temperature fundamental charge / time energy / charge voltage / current charge / voltage voltage / (current / time) voltage / distance force / charge electric field × area force / (charge × velocity) magnetic field × area

L = r·p L = I· = r·F = I· T Q S = Q/T q i = q/t V = E/q R = V/i C = q/V L = V/(i/t) E = V/d E = F/q E = E·A

J·s = kg·m2/s (quantum of angular ML2/T momentum) N·m = kg·m2/s2 °C (celsius), K (kelvin) J (joule) = kg·m2/s2 J/K C (coulomb) e (elementary charge) A (amp) = C/s V (volt) = J/C (ohm) = V/A F (farad) = C/V H (henry) = V·s/A V/m = N/C ML2/T2 K (Temp.) ML2/T2 ML2/T2K C (Charge) C/T ML2/CT2 ML2/C2T C2T2/ML2 ML2/T2 ML/CT2 ML3/CT2 M/CT ML2/CT

V·m = N·m2/C T (tesla) = Wb/m2 = B = F/q·v N·s/(C·m) Wb (weber) = V·s = M = B·A J·s/C

Note: Other conventions define different quantities to be fundamental. Mass, energy, momentum, angular momentum, and charge are conserved, which means the total amount does not change in an isolated system.

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Broad-squares -Keceptan -Acceleration -Gya -Business Kinetic-energy - Potential'' -Pressures -Power -Electric charge -Electric potential -Heat capacity -Electrical resistance -Elastic modulus Spring-constant Broad-Bearat -Densities -Gravity -Momentum -Implus -Frequency Heat-energy -Debid -Tetapanumumgas Kuefissien long-expansivity -Chlorine jnis -Electric mdan

-Mdan magned -Coefficient of expansion space - 'Broad . Area = [L2] 2. Volume = [L3] 3. The density = [ML-3] 4. Speed = [LT-1] 5. Acceleration = [LT-2] 6. Style = [MLT-2] 7. Work = [ML2T-2] 8. Power = [ML2T-3] 9. Kinetic energy = [ML2T-2] 10. Potential energy = [ML2T-2] 11. Pressure = [ML-1T-2] 12. Moment of force = [ML2T-2] 13. Momentum = [MLT-1] 14. Angular momentum = [ML2T-1] 15. Impulse = [MLT-1] 16. Electrical voltage = [ML2T-3I-1] 17. Electrical resistance = [ML2T-3I-2] Magnitude Derivatives and Its units in Physical Science - Physics Sat, 13/05/2006 - 7:39 pm - godam64 Magnitude scale derivative is formed from one or more principal amount of existing. Magnitude is anything that has value and can be expressed with numbers. Example is the area which is a derivative of the unit of length with units of square meters or m rank 2 (m ^ 2). Broad obtained from multiplying the length by length. The following are examples of the amount of derivatives in accordance with the international system / SI derived from the MKS system (meter - kilogram - second / second): - The size of the units joules of energy derivatives with the symbol A - The amount of derivative force newton unit with the symbol N - The amount of derivative watt power unit with the symbol W - The amount of pressure derivatives unit with the symbol Pa pascal - The size of the frequency derivative of the unit with the symbol Hz Hertz - The size of the unit electric charge coulomb derivatives with the symbol C - The size of the derivative unit volt potential difference with the symbol V - The amount of derivative ohm unit of electrical resistance with ohm symbol - The amount of derivative capacity farad capacitor unit with the symbol F - The size of the unit tesla magnetic flux derivative with the symbol T - The size of the unit henry inductance derivative with the symbol H - The amount of luminous flux unit lumen derivatives with the symbol ln - The amount of strong derivatives lux illumination unit with the symbol lx

physics joule unit of energy with the symbol A 2 force newton unit with the symbol N 3 watts of power unit with the symbol W 4 pressure units pascal with symbol Pa 5 frequency unit with the symbol Hz Hertz 6 electric charge coulomb unit with the symbol C 7 units volt potential difference with the symbol V 8 ohm unit of electrical resistance with ohm symbol 9 capacity farad capacitor unit with the symbol F 10 tesla magnetic flux unit with the symbol T Henry inductance unit 11 with the symbol H Luminous flux unit lumen 12 with the symbol ln Strong 13 lux lighting unit with the symbol lx 14 speed units m / s Acceleration of unit 15 m / s ^ 2 16 wide symbol m ^ 2 17 volumes of the symbol m ^ 3 18 the density of the symbol kg / m ^ 3 Magnitude is everything that can be measured and expressed numerically, eg length, mass, time, area, weight, volume, speed, etc.. Color, beautiful, beautiful, not an amount that can not be measured and expressed numerically. Scale is divided into two principal amount and magnitude of the derivative. Magnitude OF Principal Amount is the amount that the unit has been set in advance and is not derived from other quantities. There are seven basic quantities in the system of International Units of Length, Mass, Time, Temperature, Strong Flow, Number of molecules, Light Intensity. The length is the dimension of an object which states the distance between the ends. The length can be divided into high, ie the vertical distance, as well as the width, ie the distance from one side to the other side, measured at right angles to the length of the object. In the physical sciences and engineering, the word "long" is usually used synonymously with "distance", the symbol "l" or "L" (an abbreviation of the English length). Massa is the physical properties of an object, which can generally be used to measure the amount of matter contained within an object. Massa is a key concept in classical mechanics and other related subjects. Time according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (1997) is a whole series of time when the process, act or state of being or place. In this case, the time scale is an interval between two things / events, or on a long course of an event. Each community has a relatively different views about the time in which they live. For example: Western societies view time as a straight line (linear). The concept of a straight line on time followed by the formation of concepts about the sequence of events. In other words, human history is seen as a process of traveling in a time line from the old days, today and the age to come. In contrast to Western societies, masysrakat Hindus see time as a cycle of repeated without end.

Temperatures indicate the degree of body heat. Simply, the higher the temperature of an object, the hotter the object. Microscopically, the temperature shows the energy possessed by an object. Every atom in an object of each move, either in the form of displacement or movement in the form of vibration. The increasing energy of atoms making up the object, the higher the temperature of the object. Electric current is the amount of electrical charge that flows per unit time. Electrical charge can flow through wires or other electrical conductor. In ancient times, the conventional current flow is defined as a positive charge, although we now know that electrical current is generated from the negatively charged electrons flow in the opposite direction. Number of molecules Light Intensity Magnitude DERIVATIVES Magnitude scale derivative is derived from the amount of principal units or quantities derived from the merger of the principal quantities. Examples of derivative magnitude is Weight, Area, Volume, Speed, Acceleration, Mass Type, Density, Force, Work, Power, Pressure, Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Momentum, Impulse, The moment of inertia, etc.. In physics, in addition to the seven principal amount mentioned above, the other is a derivative quantity. More Derivations scale will be studied in each subject in physics. To further clarify the understanding of the derivative magnitude, consider some of the derivatives unit quantities derived from the following principal units quantities. Area = length x width = Scale length x length scale =Mxm = M2 Volume = length x width x height = Magnitude scale length x length x length scale =Mxmxm = M3 Speed = distance / time = Scale length / time scale =M/s

1 are (a) = 100 m2 1 bar = 10 * 6 dyn / cm * 2 1 bbl (us) =. 158 987 m3 1 bbl (oil) = 34 973 imp gal 1 Boiler Horsepower = 33,520 BTU per hour = 9804 kilowatts 1 British Thermal Unit = .2519 kilocalaries 1 cable = 120 fathoms = 219 456 meters 1 Calorie = 4185 joules

1 cedar square = 100sqft 1 CHAIN = 66ft 1 circle = 2 pi radians = 360 degrees I chain = 100 links, = 20.1168 meters = 4 rods = 22 yards 1 cm = .3937 in = 0.01 meters 1 cord = 128 Cuft .= cunits 2410 m3 = .85, = 78 cu ft solid softwood (sd .60938) = 70 cu ft solid hardwood (sd .54688) 1 cubic foot = .028 cubic metre = 6229 imp gal 1 cubic metre = 6.29 bbls = 220 imp gals. = 35.32 cubic feet 1 cubic yard = .765 m3 1 Cunit = 100 cu ft, sawlogs = 500FBM chips = 1092 B.D. Tons softwood chips = 1730 B.D. Tons ex poplar hardwood chips = 1226 B.D. Tons poplar 1 dynöcm * 2 = 0.1 Newton metre * 2 = 9869 '10 * 5 atmospheres 1 exa = 10E18 = E 1 fathoms = 6 feet = 1.8288 meters 1 foot = 12 inches = .3048 m = 30.48 cm 1 foot per second = miles per hour 44ö30 1 giga = 10E9 = G 1 gravity = g = 32,174 ft / sec / sec = 2.72407 km / h / sec = 9.80665 m / sec / sec 1 gram = .03527 oz 1 hectare = 2.47 acres = 10000 square meters 1 Horsepower = 550 foot pounds per second = 42.40 BTU per min = 746 Watts 1 IMPGAL = 4.54609 L = .1603 Cubic feet = Ö.8327 U.S. gallon 1 joule = 1 Newton's work of 'one metre 1 kilo = 10E3 = k 1 kilogram = 1000 grams = 9.80665 Newtons = kgf 1 kilogram = kg = 2.204622 lbs 1 kilojoules = 0948 BTU 1 kilowatt = 1.34 Imperial horspower 1 kwh (kilowatt hour) = 3412 BTU = 860 kilocalaries = 3.6 MJ 1 kip = 4.448222 kN = 1000 pounds 1 km (kilometer) = .6214 mi

1 knot = 1151 mph, 1853 km / h 1 Litre = 1057 quarts = 0.26417762 U.S. gal = 61.02 cubic ins. 1 mega = 10E6 = M 1 meter = 3281 ft 1 meter / sec = .277778 km / h 1 mile = 10 chains, = 1760 yards, 5280 feet, = 1609,344 meters, = 1609 km 1 mile per hr = 30.44 feet / sec = 1.6023 km / hr = .44508 m / sec 1 Newton = force = .224809 pounds-force 1 Newton = 1 kg mass accelerated 1 m / sec / sec 1 Newton = .10197 kg-force \ 1 N/m3 = .10197 kg/m3 1 N/m3 = .0063649 pounds per cubic ft 1 oz = 28.413062 ml 1 oz. = 28.35 gm 1 map = 10E15 = P 1 pound force = 4.448222 Newtons 1 pound mass (avidupois) = .45359237 kg 1 psi = 6.894757 kilopascals 1 pound / cubic ft = 16:02 kg/m3 = 157.1 N/m3 1 rad = 180 o U1 = 57.29577951 degrees 1 radian = 57.30 degrees 1 rod = 5.5 yards, = 0.25 chains A Sphere = 4 'U1 = 12.56637061 sterad I Stone = 14 pounds 1 tera = 10E12 = T 1 tonne = 1.102311 Tons, approx = 1 '2200 lbs Long Ton 1 USGAL = 3.785412 L 1 cubic metre of water = 2205 pounds = 1 tonne *** Energy Content of Fuels Electricity - net 3.6MJ/kWh, 3413 BTU / kWh (34.13% eff) - gross 10.551MJ/kWh, 10000 BTU / kWh Natural gas = 36-39 (37.2) MJ/m3 Propane = 26.6 MJ/m3 1 cubic metre of oil = 38-41 GJ End to date: 051216, ams

Physical Quantities Quantity Definition Formula Units Dimensions Length or Distance fundamental d m (m) L (Length)

Fundamental time t s (second) T (Time) Fundamental mass m kg (kilogram) M (Mass) Distance2 area A = L2 m2 d2 Distance3 volume V = d3 m3 L3 Density mass / volume d = m / V kg/m3 M/L3 Velocity distance / time v = d / t m / s c (speed of light) L / T Acceleration velocity / time a = v / t m/s2 L/T2 Momentum mass × velocity v p = m kg m / s ML / T Force Weight mass × acceleration mass × acceleration of gravity F = m a W = m g N (newtons) = kg m/s2 ML/T2 Pressure or Stress force / area P = F / A Pa (pascal) = N/m2 = kg / (m s2) M/LT2 Energy or Work Kinetic Energy Potential Energy of force × distance mass × velocity2 / 2 mass × acceleration of gravity x height E = F d KE = m v2 / 2 PE = m g h J (joules) = N m = kg m2/s2 ML2/T2 Power energy / time P = E / t W (watts) = J / s = kg m2/s3 ML2/T3 Impulse force × time t I = F N s = kg m / s ML / T Action energy × time momentum x distance S = E t S = p d J s = kg m 2 / s h (quantum of action) ML2 / T Fundamental angle ° (degree), rad (radians), rev 360 ° = 2 rad = 1 rev dimensionless N cyclos fundamental cycles (cycles) dimensionless Frequency cycles / time f = n / t Hz (hertz) = cyclos / s = 1 / s 1 / T Angular Velocity angle / time = / t rad / s = 1 / s 1 / T Angular Acceleration Angular velocity / time = / t rad/s2 = 1/s2 1/T2 Moment of inertia mass radius2 × I = m kg m2 ML2 r2 Momentum angular momentum radius × moment of inertia × angular velocity L = r p L=I J s = kg m 2 / s (quantum of angular momentum) ML2 / T Torque or Moment of force × radius moment of inertia × angular acceleration = r F =I N m = kg m2/s2 ML2/T2 Fundamental temperature T ° C (Celsius), K (Kelvin) K (Temp.)

Heat the heat energy Q J (joules) = kg m2/s2 ML2/T2 Entropy heat / temperature S = Q / T J / K ML2/T2K Electric Charge + / - fundamental q C (coulomb) e (elementary charge) C (Charge) Current charge / time i = q / t A (amps) = C / s C / T Voltage or Potential energy / charge, V = E / q V (volts) = J / C ML2/CT2 Resistance voltage / current R = V / i (ohms) = V / A ML2/C2T Capacitance charge / voltage C = q / V F (farad) = C / V C2T2/ML2 Inductance voltage / (current / time) L = V / (i / t) H (henry) = V s / A ML2/T2 Electric Field voltage / distance force / charge, E = V / d E = F / q V / m = N / C ML/CT2 Electric Flux electric field × area E V = E A N m = m 2 / C ML3/CT2 Magnetic Field Force / (charge × velocity) B = F / q v T (tesla) = Wb/m2 = N s / (C m) M / CT Magnetic Flux Magnetic field × area M = B A Wb (weber) = V s = A s / C ML2/CT Note: Other conventions define different quantities to be fundamental. Mass, energy, momentum, angular momentum, and charge are conserved, the which means the total amount does not change in an isolated system. ________________________________________

Senin, 15 September 2008
FISIKA : ALL ABOUT BESARAN POKOK DAN TURUNAN 1.1. Besaran Dimensional Fisika merpakan cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang memerlukan banyak sekali pengukuran ² pengukuran, misalnya: panjang, luas, berat, massa, kecepatan, waktu dan lain-lain. Semua besaran fisika dalam mekanika dapat dinyatakan dengan tiga besaran pokok, yaitu : - Panjang; - Massa; - Waktu. Yang dimaksud dengan dimensi besaran ialah cara besaran itu disusun oleh besaran pokok, misalnya: - panjang : dapat dinyatakan dalam km, dam, m, dm, cm dsb, yaitu besaran satuan yang dapat diubah kelain satuan yang sama dimensinya.

1.2. Besaran Pokok Besaran panjang memakai simbol [ L ] Besaran massa memakai simbol [ M ] Besaran waktu memakai simbol [ T ]

Tanda [] menunjukkan dimensi yang tidak dilengkapi dengan bilangan ² bilangan. Persamaan dimensi untuk: 1. Besaran Volume Silinder yang jari ²jarinya = r dan tinggi = h, maka: Volume = ›r2h dimana › : tidak mempunyai dimensi, r dan h merupakan dimensi panjang [L] Maka persamaan menjadi: [Volume]=[L2][l] à [Volume]= [L3]

2. Besaran Percepatan Percepatan = laju/waktu = (jarak/waktu)/waktu = jarak/(waktu)2 Persamaan menjadi : [Percepatan]= [L]/[T]2 = [L][T-2]=[LT-2]

3. Besaran energi kinetik: (Ek) E=½mv2 à dimensi m (massa)=[M] Dimensi v (kecepatan)= [L2T-2]

4. Besaran Gaya : (F) F=m.a à dimensi m= [M] Dimensi a= [LT-2] Persamaan menjadi : [Gaya]= [M] [LT-2] =[MLT-2] 5. Besaran Usaha (W) Usaha = hasil gaya dan perpindahan gaya

W= F.s à dimensi F=[MLT-2] Dimensi s=(jarak)=[L] Persamaan menjadi : [Usaha]= =[MLT-2][L] = [ML2T-2]

1.3. Sistem Satuan Ada tiga sistem satuan yang biasa dipakai, yaitu: - Sistem mks : ( meter ² kilogram ² sekon) - Sistem cgs : (centimeter ² gram ² sekon) - Sistem fps : (foot ² pound ² sekon) Pada tahun 1960 diresmikan suatu sistem yang pemakaiannya secara internasional dan dinamakan satuan sistem internasional (SI), yang merupakan sistem mks. Satuan dalam Sistem nternasional Besaran Satuan Lambang Satuan Lambang Dimensi Panjang Meter N L Massa Kilogran Kg M Waktu Sekon/detik S(t)

T Arus listrik Ampere A I Suhu Kelvin K Ó¨ Intensitas cahaya Kandela Cd J Jumlah zat Mole Mol N

1.4. Besaran Turunan Besaran turunan adalah besaran yang terbentuk dari besaran ² besaran pokok. Misalnya : - Luas = m2 - Volume = m3 - Kecepatan = m/det2 - Massa jenis = kg/m3 - Berat = kg.m/det2 Beberapa besaran dalam Satuan Internasional Besaran Satuan Lambang

Gaya Newton N Energi Joule J Daya Watt W Tekanan Pascal Pa Frekuensi Hertz Hz Muatan Listrik Coulumb C Beda Potensial Volt V Hambatan Listrik Ohm âŦ Kapasitas Kapasitor Farad F Fluks Magnet Weber Wb Induksi Magnet Tesla T

Induktansi Henry H Fluks Cahaya Lumen Ln Kuat Penerangan Lux lx

Beberapa tetapan dalam fisika : Percepatan gravitasi (g) = 9,80 m/det2 Tetapan gravitasi (G) = 6,67 x 10-11 newton.m2/kg2 Tetapan gas ideal (R) = 8316,96 joule/kg.moloK Tetapan Boltzmann (k) = 1,38042x 10-23 joule/oK Tetapan Stefan Boltzmann ( ) = 5,687 x10-8 joule/ m2.det oK4 Volume normal gas ideal (Vo)= 22,4m3/kg.mol

1.5. Penetapan Satuan Standard 1.Sistem mks a. Satuan Panjang Satuan mks untuk panjang adalah meter (m). Satu meter standar ditetapkan sama dengan 1.650.763,73 kali panjang gelombang cahaya orange (merah jingga) di dalam spektrum isotop krypton yang massa atomnya 86. Satuan metrik lainnya : 1 km = 103m 1 cm = 10-2m 1 hm = 102m 1 mm = 10-3m 1 dam = 10m 1 mikrometer = 10-6m

1 dm = 10-1m 1 nanometer = 10-9 m

Singkatan ² singkatan sistem metrik Nama Simbol Faktor Atto A 10-18 Femko F 10-15 Piko P 10-12 Nano N 10-9 Mikro 10-6 Mili M 10-3 Centi C 10-2 Deci D 10-1 Kilo K

103 Mega M 106 Giga G 109 Tera T 1012

b. Satuan Massa Massa adalah banyaknya zat yang dikandung oleh suatu benda. Satuan mks untuk massa adalah kilogram (kg). Satu kilogram standar ditetapkan sam dengan massa sebuah silinder platina iridium. Massa adalah ukuran besarnya kelembaban benda, sedangkan berat benda adalah gaya gravitasi. Massa dan berat mempunyai dimensi yang berlainan. Satuan massa lainnya: 1 ton =103 kilogram 1 kg = 101 hektogram 1 kg = 102 dekagram 1 kg = 103 gram 1 kg = 104 desigram 1 kg = 105 centigram 1 kg = 106 miligram 1 kg = 109 mikrogram

c. Satuan Waktu Satuan mks untuk waktu adalah sekon (detik). Satu detik standar ditetapkan sama dengan waktu yang diperlukan atom cesium untuk bergerak sebanyak : 9.192.631.770 kali.

2.Sistem cgs Perbedaan sistem cgs dengan sistem mks adalah dala pemakaian centimeter dan gram yang merupakan satuan kelipatan dari meter dan kilogram. Sistem mks dan cgs disebut sistem metrik absolut.

3.Sistem fps Sistem fps didasarkan pada gaya (F): panjang (L) dan waktu (T). Satuan gaya adalah pound. (1 pound = (1/ 2,2046)x gaya gravitasi terhadap kilogram standar internasional apabila ia ditimbang di suatu tempat di mana percepatan gravitasinya = 32,174 ft/det2). Satuan panjang adalah foot. (1 foot = 1200 / 3937 meter) Sistem fps dinamakan sistem gravitasi Inggris.

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