Fakta Mengenai IQ dan cara Meningkatkannya

Gambar di samping adalah foto Christopher Michael Langan, orang
dengan IQ 202, tertinggi di AS. Apa itu IQ dan manfaat serta bagaimana
meningkatkannya?
Pertama-tama, kebingungan yang cenderung kita temukan dalam
masyarakat adalah apa sesungguhnya “kecerdasan” itu. Sebagai contoh,
seorang pembaca artikel saya berjudul “Mengapa Manusia ada?”
menyebutnya sebagai “Suatu kebodohan yg menyesatkan”, sementara di sisi lain, tunangan saya
menyebutnya “penjelasan paling rasional yang saya temukan dari sampel di Universitas saya.”
Contoh lain mungkin anda pernah mendengar kalimat “Dia skor tes IQ nya tinggi, tapi ia tidaklah
secerdas itu,” atau bahkan “wah, itu pintar banget.”
Sering kali, kritik mengenai uji kecerdasan datang dari ketidakpercayaan pada ilmuan psikologi
dan permainan mentalnya. Lihat saja di film barat, berapa sering sih seorang psikolog menjadi
orang baik (protagonis) ketimbang orang jahat (antagonis). Sering juga ditunjukkan di film kalau
prediksi seorang psikolog salah ketimbang benar.
Gambaran yang benar adalah kemajuan ilmu psikologi sama dengan ilmu lainnya, ia tidak
sempurna. Tes IQ dan skor IQ tidaklah sempurna. Ia menunjukkan nilai dari sebuah bagian dari
kecerdasan, bukan seluruh bagian dari kecerdasan.
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nilai IQ seseorang dapat menjadi langkah pertama untuk mengenali masalah yang dihadapinya dan mencari jalan bagaimana dunia pendidikan dapat mengatasinya. masalah bernalar secara spasial. Dengan demikian. menemukan kalau saat kita memberikan jenis tes kecerdasan tertentu – misalnya untuk merancang desain bangunan atau memecahkan masalah logika – skornya berbeda. Ada juga tipe tes lain seperti Wechsler. salah satu tokoh besar psikologi. misalnya WAIS-IV untuk dewasa dan WISC-IV untuk anak-anak.” Ia adalah kemampuan alat bernalar anda untuk beradaptasi dengan lingkungan. Ia membawa sebagian maknanya dari hubungannya ke hal lain yang tampak ada secara pasti di dunia nyata: pencapaian akademis dan pekerjaan misalnya. IQ adalah skor yang diberikan tes kepada kita. Seekor monyet jauh lebih cerdas dari kita dalam hal lingkungan dan hidupnya. Itu saja. dalam artian tidak memiliki nilai prediktif. melihat g seperti melihat pornografi. pernah anda dapatkan saat anda masuk sekolah kejuruan. perbandingan IQ antar spesies adalah hal yang konyol. tidak pula ia menjamin mampu membuat orang tersebut sukses dalam berkarir dan berkeluarga (yang . tapi kamu tidak dapat mendefinisikannya. mereka dapat memprediksikan kalau seorang anak mengalami masalah membaca. Ia tercermin sebagian dalam skor IQ. Tujuan ahli psikologi klinis dan kognitif dalam merancang tes IQ sekarang adalah mendekati g sedekat mungkin. Dalam konsep ini. Banyak orang bahkan selain psikolog klinis tau kalau pengukuran kemampuan kognitif pertama yang diterima luas adalah yang dikembangkan psikolog Prancis. Lalu apa gunanya tes IQ? Karenanya banyak psikolog menarik diri ke konsep sebelumnya dari Stanford-Binet. Lewis Terman dari Stanford memperbaikinya. Bukan berarti sebuah software virus tidak dapat masuk kedalamnya. dengan faktor kecil di puncaknya yang menyetel skor sedikit lebih tinggi atau rendah – faktor utama ini dinamakan g. g adalah konstruksi tersembunyi yang tidak dapat kita ukur secara langsung. Kita bisa mengambil analogi otak sebagai komputer. Berdasarkan definisi Wechler. atau pada semacam lingkungan yang mungkin ada. saat ia ditugasi pemerintah meningkatkan layanan pada anak-anak sekolah yang mengalami gangguan perkembangan. Gagasan g masih digunakan sekarang. Charles Spearman. dll. berpikir rasional dan mengatasi lingkungannya dengan efektif. yang bila anda cukup tua sekarang. menurutnya g adalah “kapasitas global atau agregat dari individu untuk bertindak berdasarkan tujuan. Kamu tahu itu porno. nilainya hanya mencerminkan lingkungannya. Bagi sebagian besar psikolog. Konstruk ini terletak antara nyata dan khayal. Prediksi apa yang bisa dihasilkan dari definisi g Wechler? Setiap orang dapat tes IQ. Definisi ini banyak dikritik karena ia tidak ilmiah. Ia tidak lebih pintar dan tidak lebih bodoh. Itu saja. Kesimpulannya adalah adanya faktor utama dibalik tes-tes ini.02020202020202020202020202020 Daerah ungu merupakan daerah tempat terjadinya pemikiran abstrak Apa sebenarnya IQ itu? Tergantung siapa yang anda tanya. Orang ber IQ tinggi tidaklah kebal terhadap penyakit mental ataupun kesedihan. David Wechler mencoba memberi definisi. Di masa kini. dan menciptakan apa yang dinamakan Stanford-Binet. Binet. Orang ber IQ tinggi berarti prosesornya cepat dan RAM nya tinggi. atau “kecerdasan umum (general). namun saling berkorelasi dengan kuat.

Malahan. Akibatnya skor tes IQ kita meningkat. Orang Indonesia masih sibuk mengurusi masalah hidup sehari-hari. Leluhur kita hidup di Bumi sebagai orang praktis yang harus berkonsentrasi untuk masalah konkrit. Dr. Efek Flynn juga menjelaskan mengapa laki-laki ateis dan liberal memiliki IQ lebih tinggi 6 hingga 11 point daripada laki-laki teis dan konservatif. kehidupan kita didominasi sebagian besar oleh masalah konkrit atau apa yang di istilahkan orang sebagai “kecerdasan terkristalisasi”. sementara orang Singapura sudah memainkan berbagai rumus matematika dalam kesehariannya. Dr. Karenanya.merupakan masalah konkrit). ini tidak ada artinya. Sekarang. Kita lebih cerdas dalam sebagian hal daripada kakek-nenek kita. Saya rasa akan sangat kecil kemungkinan kalau seorang menjadi ateis semata . Berdasarkan efek Flynn. Flynn menjelaskan perbedaan ini adalah perbedaan dalam belajar berpikir abstrak. Contoh soal tes IQ Dapatkah IQ ditingkatkan? Dalam studi kecerdasan. Tes IQ yang dianalisa untuk Singapura misalnya menunjukkan peningkatan IQ yang tinggi sekali dibandingkan Indonesia (106 vs 86). Hal ini karena ateisme umumnya merupakan perpindahan dari posisi teisme. masalah hidup sehari-hari. ia dibuat berdasarkan pemikiran abstrak seperti logika dan pemikiran kritis. Berpikir abstrak adalah berpikir dengan generalisasi dan abstraksi logis. perbedaan IQ 30 point ini karena lingkungan dan belajar. Yang bisa kita katakan adalah. Tes IQ adalah tes yang abstrak. Peningkatan ini jelas terlalu tinggi kalau hanya karena genetik. Flynn menemukan kalau IQ meningkat rata-rata 30 point setiap 100 tahun. kita diajarkan berpikir secara abstrak. Kakek-nenek kita memiliki gen yang hampir sama dengan kita. sementara berpikir konkrit adalah berpikir langsung (literal) dan terikat pada kesan dari indera saat itu. orang di Singapura memiliki lingkungan dan pembelajaran lebih menunjang abstraksi daripada orang di Indonesia. ada yang namanya Efek Flynn.

untuk meningkatkan IQ anda. biologi. pemasaran. yang merupakan pemikiran konkrit. Seperti kata dosen saya. Matematika itu sangat sulit. olahraga. tapi lebih sulit lagi Pendidikan Matematika . anda harus : belajar hal abstrak lebih banyak. Gangguan ini dapat bersifat langsung atau tidak langsung. matematika. Contoh mata pelajaran konkrit adalah seni. serta mengkonsumsi makanan yang baik untuk otak. filsafat. dsb. IQ tinggi lebih baik bila anda bekerja pada bidang yang terkait masalah-masalah abstrak. Kesimpulan Jadi. Ada bidang yang membutuhkan kemampuan abstrak dan konkrit sekaligus. seperti ilmuan atau desainer. fisika. komunikasi. misalnya lewat nutrisi.ikut-ikutan atau doktrin dari orang tuanya. seperti Pendidikan. Tentu saja. dan apa yang disebut orang life-skill. maka gangguan di otak di daerah bersangkutan dapat berakibat pada dua kemungkinan meningkatknya skor IQ atau menurunnya skor IQ. Contoh mata pelajaran abstrak adalah logika. hidup dalam lingkungan diskusi abstrak yang mendukung. kimia. Gangguan kesehatan seperti anemia sel sabit dan multiple sklerosis terbukti menurunkan kemampuan berpikir abstrak dan akibatnya menurunkan skor IQ. karena pemikiran abstrak menggunakan otak sebagai organ utama.

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