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Fakta Mengenai IQ Dan Cara Meningkatkannya

Fakta Mengenai IQ Dan Cara Meningkatkannya

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Published by Kun Fayyaqun

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Published by: Kun Fayyaqun on Mar 22, 2012
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07/13/2013

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Fakta Mengenai IQ dan cara Meningkatkannya

Gambar di samping adalah foto Christopher Michael Langan, orang
dengan IQ 202, tertinggi di AS. Apa itu IQ dan manfaat serta bagaimana
meningatann!a"
#ertama$tama, ebingungan !ang cenderung ita temuan dalam
mas!araat adalah apa sesungguhn!a %ecerdasan& itu. Sebagai contoh,
seorang pembaca artiel sa!a ber'udul %Mengapa Manusia ada"&
men!ebutn!a sebagai %Suatu ebodohan !g men!esatan&, sementara di sisi lain, tunangan sa!a
men!ebutn!a %pen'elasan paling rasional !ang sa!a temuan dari sampel di (ni)ersitas sa!a.&
Contoh lain mungin anda pernah mendengar alimat %*ia sor tes IQ n!a tinggi, tapi ia tidalah
secerdas itu,& atau bahan %+ah, itu pintar banget.&
Sering ali, riti mengenai u'i ecerdasan datang dari etidaperca!aan pada ilmuan psiologi
dan permainan mentaln!a. Lihat sa'a di film barat, berapa sering sih seorang psiolog men'adi
orang bai ,protagonis- etimbang orang 'ahat ,antagonis-. Sering 'uga ditun'uan di film alau
predisi seorang psiolog salah etimbang benar.
Gambaran !ang benar adalah ema'uan ilmu psiologi sama dengan ilmu lainn!a, ia tida
sempurna. .es IQ dan sor IQ tidalah sempurna. Ia menun'uan nilai dari sebuah bagian dari
ecerdasan, buan seluruh bagian dari ecerdasan.
0/000000000123100/0000002d3300000000/4/0000024040f002220526d64610/00000000000/0
063c4000000000b00000000200000a31f0/00a35f0/000/0000004c00000000000000000000002b0
/0000e400000000000000000000006b/d000012/c000020656d6400000/00a35f0/000c0000000/0
000000000000000000000000000000005000000010000600/0000f0000000000000000000000000
00000000e2060030a00100640000002c00000020000000656d642b0/600/00/c000000/000000002
/0c0db0/000000400000004000000064000000/66d0000036d0000656d642b226006000c0000000
0000000/e6000000c0000000000000026600/000c0000000000000010600200/000000006000000
0000301f2/6002000c0000000000000003600005406c0000566c000002/0c0db0/00000000000000
0000000000000000000000000/00000062606413124/2c0/e200e20000ffffff6b0260366416ae0046
ffffffffffff5e5d22ffffffffffffb2b046ffffff5b533/06243c566223eae30dffffff5f242a2e602cffffffb340
52ffffffffffffb602b6ffffffffffff021f03ffffffffffffa6eb0affffff122324a2a550ffffffffffff232/4cffffff5c
2436f1ebdeffffffffffff0f2f51ffffffecd4d6ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff263515ffffffffffffffffff2
25d22dfdeddfcfefc32302020505cffffffc6c222ffffffffffff065302ffffffffffffffffff546f00ffffffac5d6bf
fffffbce40615105effffffffffff3cc043d202d6bc3200ffffff3300c6ffffffffffffddcfb1ffffffffffffc/a122f0
eff/b6afe2aba3b4ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff41422fc5262b2b25c0ffffff5e6c10e0
faddc2c1edffffffffffffffffffffffff2c2c10ffffffa632a3aaa6eeffffff62603bdfddf55d5c1dd6aed6fffffffff
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*aerah ungu merupaan daerah tempat ter'adin!a pemiiran abstra
Apa sebenarnya IQ itu?
.ergantung siapa !ang anda tan!a. 7an!a orang bahan selain psiolog linis tau alau
penguuran emampuan ognitif pertama !ang diterima luas adalah !ang diembangan psiolog
#rancis, 7inet, saat ia ditugasi pemerintah meningatan la!anan pada ana$ana seolah !ang
mengalami gangguan perembangan. Le+is .erman dari Stanford memperbaiin!a, dan
menciptaan apa !ang dinamaan Stanford$7inet, !ang bila anda cuup tua searang, pernah anda
dapatan saat anda masu seolah e'uruan. Ada 'uga tipe tes lain seperti 8echsler, misaln!a
8AIS$I9 untu de+asa dan 8ISC$I9 untu ana$ana.
*i masa ini, Charles Spearman, salah satu tooh besar psiologi, menemuan alau saat ita
memberian 'enis tes ecerdasan tertentu : misaln!a untu merancang desain bangunan atau
memecahan masalah logia : sorn!a berbeda, namun saling berorelasi dengan uat.
;esimpulann!a adalah adan!a fator utama dibali tes$tes ini, dengan fator ecil di puncan!a
!ang men!etel sor sediit lebih tinggi atau rendah : fator utama ini dinamaan g, atau
%ecerdasan umum ,general-. Gagasan g masih digunaan searang. IQ adalah sor !ang diberian
tes epada ita< g adalah onstrusi tersembun!i !ang tida dapat ita uur secara langsung. Ia
tercermin sebagian dalam sor IQ. .u'uan ahli psiologi linis dan ognitif dalam merancang tes
IQ searang adalah mendeati g sedeat mungin.
7agi sebagian besar psiolog, melihat g seperti melihat pornografi. ;amu tahu itu porno, tapi
amu tida dapat mendefinisiann!a. *a)id 8echler mencoba memberi definisi, menurutn!a g
adalah %apasitas global atau agregat dari indi)idu untu bertinda berdasaran tu'uan, berpiir
rasional dan mengatasi lingungann!a dengan efetif.& Ia adalah emampuan alat bernalar anda
untu beradaptasi dengan lingungan, atau pada semacam lingungan !ang mungin ada.
7erdasaran definisi 8echler, perbandingan IQ antar spesies adalah hal !ang on!ol. Seeor
mon!et 'auh lebih cerdas dari ita dalam hal lingungan dan hidupn!a. ;onstru ini terleta
antara n!ata dan ha!al. Ia memba+a sebagian manan!a dari hubungann!a e hal lain !ang
tampa ada secara pasti di dunia n!ata= pencapaian aademis dan peer'aan misaln!a. *efinisi ini
ban!a diriti arena ia tida ilmiah, dalam artian tida memilii nilai preditif. #redisi apa
!ang bisa dihasilan dari definisi g 8echler" Setiap orang dapat tes IQ, nilain!a han!a
mencerminan lingungann!a. Itu sa'a. Ia tida lebih pintar dan tida lebih bodoh. Lalu apa
gunan!a tes IQ"
;arenan!a ban!a psiolog menari diri e onsep sebelumn!a dari Stanford$7inet. *alam
onsep ini, merea dapat mempredisian alau seorang ana mengalami masalah membaca,
masalah bernalar secara spasial, dll. *engan demiian, nilai IQ seseorang dapat men'adi langah
pertama untu mengenali masalah !ang dihadapin!a dan mencari 'alan bagaimana dunia
pendidian dapat mengatasin!a.
;ita bisa mengambil analogi ota sebagai omputer. >rang ber IQ tinggi berarti prosesorn!a cepat
dan ?AM n!a tinggi. Itu sa'a. 7uan berarti sebuah soft+are )irus tida dapat masu edalamn!a.
>rang ber IQ tinggi tidalah ebal terhadap pen!ait mental ataupun esedihan, tida pula ia
men'amin mampu membuat orang tersebut suses dalam berarir dan bereluarga ,!ang
merupaan masalah onrit-. Malahan, ehidupan ita didominasi sebagian besar oleh masalah
onrit atau apa !ang di istilahan orang sebagai %ecerdasan terristalisasi&.
Contoh soal tes IQ
Dapatkah IQ ditingkatkan?
*alam studi ecerdasan, ada !ang naman!a @fe Al!nn. *r. Al!nn menemuan alau IQ
meningat rata$rata 10 point setiap /00 tahun. ;ita lebih cerdas dalam sebagian hal daripada
ae$nene ita.
#eningatan ini 'elas terlalu tinggi alau han!a arena geneti. ;ae$nene ita memilii gen
!ang hampir sama dengan ita. ;arenan!a, perbedaan IQ 10 point ini arena lingungan dan
bela'ar.
*r. Al!nn men'elasan perbedaan ini adalah perbedaan dalam bela'ar berpiir abstra. Leluhur ita
hidup di 7umi sebagai orang pratis !ang harus beronsentrasi untu masalah onrit, masalah
hidup sehari$hari. .es IQ adalah tes !ang abstra. Searang, ita dia'aran berpiir secara abstra.
Aibatn!a sor tes IQ ita meningat.
Berpikir abstrak adalah berpiir dengan generalisasi dan abstrasi logis, sementara berpikir
konkrit adalah berpiir langsung ,literal- dan teriat pada esan dari indera saat itu.
.es IQ !ang dianalisa untu Singapura misaln!a menun'uan peningatan IQ !ang tinggi seali
dibandingan Indonesia ,/04 )s 34-. 7erdasaran efe Al!nn, ini tida ada artin!a. Bang bisa ita
ataan adalah, orang di Singapura memilii lingungan dan pembela'aran lebih menun'ang
abstrasi daripada orang di Indonesia. >rang Indonesia masih sibu mengurusi masalah hidup
sehari$hari, sementara orang Singapura sudah memainan berbagai rumus matematia dalam
esehariann!a.
@fe Al!nn 'uga men'elasan mengapa lai$lai ateis dan liberal memilii IQ lebih tinggi 4 hingga
// point daripada lai$lai teis dan onser)atif. Cal ini arena ateisme umumn!a merupaan
perpindahan dari posisi teisme, ia dibuat berdasaran pemiiran abstra seperti logia dan
pemiiran ritis. Sa!a rasa aan sangat ecil emunginan alau seorang men'adi ateis semata
iut$iutan atau dotrin dari orang tuan!a, !ang merupaan pemiiran onrit.
.entu sa'a, arena pemiiran abstra menggunaan ota sebagai organ utama, maa gangguan di
ota di daerah bersangutan dapat beraibat pada dua emunginan meningatn!a sor IQ atau
menurunn!a sor IQ. Gangguan ini dapat bersifat langsung atau tida langsung, misaln!a le+at
nutrisi. Gangguan esehatan seperti anemia sel sabit dan multiple slerosis terbuti menurunan
emampuan berpiir abstra dan aibatn!a menurunan sor IQ.
Kesimpulan
Dadi, untu meningatan IQ anda, anda harus = bela'ar hal abstra lebih ban!a, hidup dalam
lingungan disusi abstra !ang menduung, serta mengonsumsi maanan !ang bai untu ota.
Contoh mata pela'aran abstra adalah logia, filsafat, matematia, fisia, imia, biologi, dsb.
Contoh mata pela'aran onrit adalah seni, olahraga, pemasaran, omuniasi, dan apa !ang disebut
orang life-skill. IQ tinggi lebih bai bila anda beer'a pada bidang !ang terait masalah$masalah
abstra, seperti ilmuan atau desainer. Ada bidang !ang membutuhan emampuan abstra dan
onrit sealigus, seperti #endidian. Seperti ata dosen sa!a, Matematia itu sangat sulit, tapi
lebih sulit lagi #endidian Matematia

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