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MEKANISME KERJA ENZIM

MEKANISME KERJA ENZIM

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Published by: tuwiw on Jun 30, 2012
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MEKANISME KERJA ENZIM

Molekul selalu bergerak dan bertumbukan satu dengan yang lain. Jika suatu molekul substrat
menumbuk molekul enzim yang tepat, substrat akan menempel pada enzim. Tempat menempelnya
molekul substrat pada enzim disebut dengan sisi aktif. Kemudian terjadi reaksi dan terbentuk
molekul produk.
Banyak enzim yang dapat bekerja bolak-balik (reversible. !nzim dapat menguba" substrat
menjadi "asil ak"ir dan juga dapat menguba" "asil ak"ir menjadi substrat jika lingkungannya
beruba". Misalnya, enzim lipase dapat berfungsi katalisator dalam peruba"an lemak menjadi asam
lemak dan glilserol. !nzim lipase juga dapat menguba" kembali asam lemak dan gliserol menjadi
lemak (lipid.
!nzim juga bekerja se#ara spesifik, artinya enzim mempunyai fungsi yang k"usus. Jika enzim
berbeda maka "asilnya akan berbeda pula. Misalnya, peme#a"an rafinosa (suatu trisakarida. Jika
dilakukan ole" enzim sukrase rafinosa akan terurai menjadi melibiosa dan fruktosa, sedangkan jika
dilakukan dengan ole" enzim emulsion rafinosa akan terurai menjadi sukrosa dan galaktosa.
$da dua teori mengenai mekanisme kerja enzim, yaitu lo#k and key t"eory dan indu#ed fit t"eory.
% &o#k and Key T"eory (Teori 'embok dan Kun#i
Teori ini dikemukakan ole" (is#"er (%)**. Menurutnya, enzim diumpamakan sebagai gembok
karena memiliki sebua" bagian ke#il yang dapat berikatan dengan substrat yang disebut dengan sisi
aktif, sedangkan substrat sebagai kun#i karena dapat berikatan se#ara pas dengan sisi aktif enzim.
+ubstrat dapat berikatan dengan enzim jika sesuai dengan sisi aktif enzim. +isi aktif enzim
mempunyai bentuk tertentu yang "anya sesuai untuk satu jenis substrat saja, "al itu menyebabkan
enzim bekerja se#ara spesifik. +ubstrat yang mempunyai bentuk ruang yang sesuai dengan sisi
aktif enzim akan berikatan dan membentuk kompleks transisi enzim-substrat. +enya,a transisi ini
tidak stabil se"ingga pembentukan produk berlangsung dengan sendirinya. Jika enzim mengalami
denaturasi (rusak karena panas, bentuk sisi aktif akan beruba" se"ingga substrat tidak sesuai lagi.
-eruba"an p. juga mempunyai pengaru" yang sama.
/ 0ndu#ed (it T"eory (Teori Ketepatan 0nduksi
Teori ini dikemukakan ole" 1aniel Kos"land. Menurutnya, sisi aktif enzim bersifat fleksibel.
$kibatnya, sisi aktif enzim dapat beruba" bentuk menyesuaikan bentuk substrat. Teori ini sesuai
dengan mekanisme kerja enzim yangt sesunggu"nya.
2eaksi antara substrat dengan enzim berlangsung karena adanya induksi molekul substrat ter"adap
molekul enzim. Menurut teori ini, sisi aktif enzim bersifat fleksibel dalam menyesuaikan stuktur
sesuai dengan struktur substrat. Ketika substrat memasuki sisi aktif enzim, maka enzim akan
terinduksi dan kemudian menguba" bentuknya sedikit se"ingga mengakibatkan peruba"an sisi
aktif yang semula tidak #o#ok menjadi #o#ok (fit. Kemudian terjadi pengikatan substrat ole"
enzim yang selanjutnya substrat diuba" menjadi produk. -roduk kemudian dilepaskan dan enzim
kembali pada keadaan semula dan siap untuk mengikat substrat baru.
1iposkan ole" v"av"a di %34
Cara Kerja (Mekanisme) Enzim- +ifat k"usus enzim lainnya adala" tidak ikut bereaksi, artinya
enzim "anya memproses substrat (#onto"nya, lemak menjadi produk (#onto"nya, gliserol dan
asam lemak tanpa ikut mengalami peruba"an dalam reaksi itu. Ba"an tempat kerja enzim disebut
substrat dan "asil dari reaksi disebut produk. 1engan demikian enzim dapat digunakan kembali
untuk mengkatalisis reaksi yang sama, berikutnya. Mekanisme kerja enzim dapat $nda li"at pada
'ambar /.5.
'ambar /.5 .ubungan enzim dan substrat
+e#ara seder"ana #ara kerja enzim dapat digambarkan dengan kun#i dan gembok. Kompleks enzim
dapat tumbu" pada substrat karena pada permukaan enzim terdapat sisi aktif. +isi aktif tersebut
mempunyai konfigurasi aktif tertentu dan "anya substrat tertentu yang dapat bergabung dan
menyebabkan enzim dapat bekerja se#ara spesifik. +e#ara seder"ana reaksi enzim dituliskan4
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+ifat-sifat enzim selain sebagai biokatalisator dan sebagai suatu protein, enzim mempunyai sifat
yaitu berperan tidak bolak-balik. $rtinya enzim dapat bekerja menguraikan suatu substrat menjadi
substrat tertentu dan tidak sebaliknya dapat menyusun substrat sumber dari "asil penguraian,
misalya enzim protease dapat menguraikan protein menjadi asam amino, tetapi tidak
menggabungkan asam aminonya menjadi protein.
!nzim menjadi rusak apabila berada pada su"u yang terlalu panas atau terlalu dingin. +ebagian
besar enzim akan rusak pada su"u di atas 76:; karena proteinnya (gugus prostetik menggumpal
(koagulasi. Jika tela" rusak maka tidak akan berfungsi lagi meskipun berada pada su"u normal,
rusaknya enzim ole" panas disebut denaturasi. +elain itu, kerja enzim juga dapat ter"alang ole" zat
lain. <at yang dapat meng"ambat kerja enzim disebut inhibitor, #onto"nya ;=, $rsen, .g, dan
+ianida. +ebaliknya zat yang dapat memper#epat jalannya reaksi disebut aktivator, #onto"nya ion
Mg>?, ;a>?, zat organik seperti koenzim-$.
!nzim dapat bekerja optimal pada p. tertentu, misalnya enzim lipase, p. optimal 8,3@3,8.
$plikasi p. yang tidak #o#ok maka sifat kerja enzim dapat menyebabkan ionisasi dari gugus
karboksil dan amino dari bagian-bagian enzim yang tersusun atau apoenzim dan dapat
menyebabkan denaturasi, ole" karena itu akan terjadi tamba"an struktur enzim se"ingga tidak
dapat bekerja dengan baik.
M!K$A0+M! K!2J$ !A<0M
Mekanisme !nzim dapat bekerja dengan beberapa cara, yang kesemuaannya
menurunkan G‡:[26] Menurunkan energi aktivasi dengan menciptakan suatu Δ
lingkungan yang mana keadaan transisi terstabilisasi (contohnya mengubah
bentuk substrat menadi kon!ormasi keadaan transisi ketika ia terikat dengan
en"im. Menurunkan energi keadaan transisi tanpa menguba" bentuk substrat dengan
men#iptakan lingkungan yang memiliki distribusi muatan yang berla,anan dengan keadaan
transisi. Menyediakan lintasan reaksi alternatif. ;onto"nya bereaksi dengan substrat sementara
,aktu untuk membentuk kompleks !nzim-+ubstrat antara. Menurunkan peruba"an entropi reaksi
dengan menggiring substrat bersama pada orientasi yang tepat untuk bereaksi. Menariknya, efek
entropi ini melibatkan destabilisasi keadaan dasar,B/3C dan kontribusinya ter"adap katalis relatif
ke#il.B/*C ;ara enzim bekerja adala" dengan membentuk senya,a enzim-substrat, kemudian
meng"asilkan suatu produk tanpa meruba" senya,a enzim itu sendiri, setela" produk terbentuk
maka enzim akan melepaskan diri untuk membentuk senya,a baru dengan substrat yang lain. $da
/ (dua #ara kerja enzim 4 &o#k and key (gembok dan anak kun#i +etiap enzim memiliki sisi aktif
yang tersusun dari sejumla" asam amino. Bentuk sisi aktif ini sangat spesifik, se"ingga "anya
molekul dengan bentuk tertentu yang dapat menjadi substrat bagi enzim. 0ndu#ed fit (induksi pas
+isi aktif enzim merupakan bentuk yang tidak kaku (fleksibel. Ketika substrat memasuki sisi aktif
enzim, bentuk sisi aktif beruba" bentuk sesuai dengan bentuk substrat kemudian terbentuk
kompleks enzim-substrat. -ada saat produk suda" terlepas dari kompleks, maka enzim lepas dan
kembali bereaksi dengan substrat yang lain. !nzim bekerja dengan #ara mengkatalis reaksi
se"ingga meningkatkan ke#epatan reaksi yang dilakukan dengan menurunkan energi aktivasi
(energi yang dibutu"kan untuk reaksi. M!K$A0+M! K!2J$ !A<0M Molekul selalu bergerak
dan bertumbukan satu dengan yang lain. Jika suatu molekul substrat menumbuk molekul enzim
yang tepat, substrat akan menempel pada enzim. Tempat menempelnya molekul substrat pada
enzim disebut dengan sisi aktif. Kemudian terjadi reaksi dan terbentuk molekul produk. Banyak
enzim yang dapat bekerja bolak-balik (reversible. !nzim dapat menguba" substrat menjadi "asil
ak"ir dan juga dapat menguba" "asil ak"ir menjadi substrat jika lingkungannya beruba". Misalnya,
enzim lipase dapat berfungsi katalisator dalam peruba"an lemak menjadi asam lemak dan glilserol.
!nzim lipase juga dapat menguba" kembali asam lemak dan gliserol menjadi lemak (lipid. !nzim
juga bekerja se#ara spesifik, artinya enzim mempunyai fungsi yang k"usus. Jika enzim berbeda
maka "asilnya akan berbeda pula. Misalnya, peme#a"an rafinosa (suatu trisakarida. Jika dilakukan
ole" enzim sukrase rafinosa akan terurai menjadi melibiosa dan fruktosa, sedangkan jika dilakukan
dengan ole" enzim emulsion rafinosa akan terurai menjadi sukrosa dan galaktosa. $da dua teori
mengenai mekanisme kerja enzim, yaitu lo#k and key t"eory dan indu#ed fit t"eory. % &o#k and
Key T"eory (Teori 'embok dan Kun#i Teori ini dikemukakan ole" (is#"er (%)**. Menurutnya,
enzim diumpamakan sebagai gembok karena memiliki sebua" bagian ke#il yang dapat berikatan
dengan substrat yang disebut dengan sisi aktif, sedangkan substrat sebagai kun#i karena dapat
berikatan se#ara pas dengan sisi aktif enzim. +ubstrat dapat berikatan dengan enzim jika sesuai
dengan sisi aktif enzim. +isi aktif enzim mempunyai bentuk tertentu yang "anya sesuai untuk satu
jenis substrat saja, "al itu menyebabkan enzim bekerja se#ara spesifik. +ubstrat yang mempunyai
bentuk ruang yang sesuai dengan sisi aktif enzim akan berikatan dan membentuk kompleks transisi
enzim-substrat. +enya,a transisi ini tidak stabil se"ingga pembentukan produk berlangsung
dengan sendirinya. Jika enzim mengalami denaturasi (rusak karena panas, bentuk sisi aktif akan
beruba" se"ingga substrat tidak sesuai lagi. -eruba"an p. juga mempunyai pengaru" yang sama.
/ 0ndu#ed (it T"eory (Teori Ketepatan 0nduksi Teori ini dikemukakan ole" 1aniel Kos"land.
Menurutnya, sisi aktif enzim bersifat fleksibel. $kibatnya, sisi aktif enzim dapat beruba" bentuk
menyesuaikan bentuk substrat. Teori ini sesuai dengan mekanisme kerja enzim yangt
sesunggu"nya. 2eaksi antara substrat dengan enzim berlangsung karena adanya induksi molekul
substrat ter"adap molekul enzim. Menurut teori ini, sisi aktif enzim bersifat fleksibel dalam
menyesuaikan stuktur sesuai dengan struktur substrat. Ketika substrat memasuki sisi aktif enzim,
maka enzim akan terinduksi dan kemudian menguba" bentuknya sedikit se"ingga mengakibatkan
peruba"an sisi aktif yang semula tidak #o#ok menjadi #o#ok (fit. Kemudian terjadi pengikatan
substrat ole" enzim yang selanjutnya substrat diuba" menjadi produk. -roduk kemudian dilepaskan
dan enzim kembali pada keadaan semula dan siap untuk mengikat substrat baru. -!A'$2D.
0A.0B0T=2 T!2.$1$- K!2J$ !A<0M $ktivitas dari enzim dapat dipengaru"i ole" beberapa
jenis molekul, sala" satunya adala" in"ibitor. 0n"ibitor merupakan suatu senya,a yang dapat
meng"ambat atau menurunkan laju reaksi yang dikatalisis ole" enzim. 0n"ibitor irreversibel atau
tidak dapat balik, dimana setela" in"ibitor mengikat enzim, in"ibitor tidak dapat dipisa"kan dari
sisi aktif enzim. Keadaan ini menyebabkan enzim tidak dapat mengikat substrat atau in"ibitor
merusak beberapa komponen (gugus fungsi pada sisi katalitik molekul enzim. +edangakan
n"ibitor reversibel atau dapat balik, bekerja dengan mengikat sisi aktif enzim melalui reaksi
reversibel dan in"ibitor ini dapat dipisa"kan atau dilepaskan kembali dari ikatannya. 0n"ibitor
dapat balik terdiri dari tiga jenis, yaitu in"ibitor yang bekerja se#ara kompetitif, non-kompetitif,
dan un-kompetitif. Beberapa jenis molekul dapat mempengaru"i aktivitas enzim. $ktivitas dari
enzim dapat dipengaru"i ole" beberapa jenis molekul, sala" satunya adala" in"ibitor. 0n"ibitor
merupakan suatu senya,a yang dapat meng"ambat atau menurunkan laju reaksi yang dikatalisis
ole" enzim. 0n"ibitor irreversibel atau tidak dapat balik, dimana setela" in"ibitor mengikat enzim,
in"ibitor tidak dapat dipisa"kan dari sisi aktif enzim. Keadaan ini menyebabkan enzim tidak dapat
mengikat substrat atau in"ibitor merusak beberapa komponen (gugus fungsi pada sisi katalitik
molekul enzim. +edangakan n"ibitor reversibel atau dapat balik, bekerja dengan mengikat sisi aktif
enzim melalui reaksi reversibel dan in"ibitor ini dapat dipisa"kan atau dilepaskan kembali dari
ikatannya. 0n"ibitor dapat balik terdiri dari tiga jenis, yaitu in"ibitor yang bekerja se#ara
kompetitif, non-kompetitif, dan un-kompetitif.

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